عنوان مقاله [English]
Air pollution is a major problemin large industrial cities and affects the life of urban citizens.Due to population growth,significant increase in the number of motor vehicles as well as the concentration and accumulation of industries, Tehran is in the grip of an air pollution crisis. Previous studies have indicated that once every three days, Tehran faces increased levels of pollutants and air pollution.Ozone is produced through photochemical reactions between hydrocarbons in carexhaust and nitrogen oxides in the atmosphere. Producedthrough reactions between atmospheric pollutants,this pollutant is not primarily released into the environment by a specific sourceand thus, it is called a secondary pollutant.Concentration of ground-level ozone has doubled over the last century.Exposure to this pollutant is very harmful for human health, especially those who exercise outdoors because it severely damages their lungs.Therefore, increased concentration of pollutants has become a major challenge for the management of metropolises such as Tehran. Having information about the spatial distribution of pollutants allows urban managers to take appropriate measures and reduce pollution related risksfor areas and people in danger.Due to excessive concentration of industries and factories inside the geographical boundaries of Tehran, along with its specific geographical condition, topography and climate, Tehran has become one of the seven most polluted cities of the world.The present study seeks to model the spatial and temporal changes of ozone and nitrogen oxidesin Tehran metropolis.
Methods and Materials
In this cross-sectional descriptive study, spatial analysis of pollutants (ozone(O3) and nitrogen oxides)is performed based on data measured by Tehran air quality monitoring stations for the 2008, 2009, and 2018reference periods. For 2008 reference period, data were collected on a monthly basisfrom the website ofTehranair quality control company,while for 2008 and 2018, data were collected annually. Arc GIS 10.5 released by ESRI was usedfor spatial analysis, and Microsoft Excel 2013 was usedto drawdiagrams and perform other analysis.Inverse distance weighting (IDW) model was used for spatial analysis of ozone and nitrogen oxidesin Tehran metropolitan area inthe three reference periods. Finally, the reference periods were compared and the most polluted one was zoned using the IDW model. In the second method, Google Earth Engine was used to model the spatial distribution of ozone and nitrogen oxides. In this method, Sentinel-5p NRTI O3: Near Real Time Ozone product was used to model ozone and nitrogen oxideson an annual basis (11/01/2018 and 28/03/2020).This is the date in which sentinel has started monitoring ozone and nitrogen pollutants. As the most important product available for measuring the average rate of change,column of ozone and nitrogen oxides’ changes in the atmosphere (O3_Column_number_density) was used in this study. Annual average concentration of ozone and nitrogen pollutants in Tehran was compared with the Sentinel-5 product in Google Earth Engine.
Results & Discussion
In 2018, average annual concentration of ozone and nitrogen oxides in studied stations equaled 12.7 ppb. The accuracy of modeling was also calculated using the coefficient of determination(R2) or coefficient of detection (CD). The average annual concentration of ozone and nitrogen oxides in 2008 was also measured for all air quality control stations to determine their correlation.All independent variables used in this model had an acceptable level of significance (P.> 0.001).In other words, all parameters improved the performance of the model in estimating the concentration of ozone and nitrogen oxidespollutants. The model was developed and R2 rate for 2008 monthly average equaled 0.9188%.The coefficient of determination (R2)for ozone and nitrogen oxides’ concentration in 2009 equaled 0.9134%, but the annual average of 2018showed a much lower R2which equaled 0.476%.It should be noted that not all stations have been evaluated in this study, because the concentrations of ozone and nitrogen oxidesin some air quality monitoring stations equaled zero. Thus, only stations showing a greater than zero value have been used in this study.
As previously mentioned, various models have been proposed for modeling the concentration of ozone and nitrogen oxides, each showing a different result. In the present study, the inverse distance weighting (IDW) model was used for three reference periods (2008, 2009 and 2018), and the concentrations of ozone and nitrogen oxides in the atmosphere were also modeled using the variables related to air quality monitoring stations.Ozone concentration modeled by inverse distance weighting method was compared with the average annual change of ozone concentration derived from Sentinel-5 product in Google Earth Engine. Results obtained from the concentration of ozone and nitrogen oxides in the three reference periods were investigated using thecoefficient of detection.The resulting coefficient of determination for ozone concentration in 2008 and 2009 equaled 0.9188% and 0.9134%, respectively. The lowest coefficient ofdetermination for ozone and nitrogen oxidesconcentration was obtained for 2018 which equaled 0.476%. Regarding the spatial distribution of ozone and nitrogen oxides in 2008, the highest concentrations were observed inMasoudiyeh, Punak, Rose Park and Aqdasiyeh stations, and the highest concentration of nitrogen oxides was observed in District4, Crisis Management Headquarterand Sadr Expressway(District 3). In 2009,the station in Rose Park (District 22) showed the highest concentration of ozone and nitrogen oxides.In 2018, IDW modelling and spatial distribution of ozone and nitrogen oxidesshowed a different result. In this reference period, the station in district 4 received the highest annual concentration of ozone and nitrogen oxides, and north eastern areas ofTehran was regarded as the most polluted areas based on the concentration of these pollutants. But stations in16th, 19th and 20th districts and Masoudieh station (15th district) had the lowest annual concentration of ozone and nitrogen oxides. In general, it can be said that spatial modeling with Sentinel-5 product has been able to model the concentration of ozone and nitrogen oxides inall stationsof Tehran on a pixel by pixel basis.