عنوان مقاله [English]
To achieve sustainable security in Countries where security regards as a main concern, must implement land use planning programs in order of priority from the border to the interior. In land use studies, geography as a context plays a main role in the realization of codified plans and programs. All three vertices of the golden triangle of land management mean; Man, activity and space are influenced by the natural and human geographical features of the study area. Border zone planning is a type of planning that integrates border development with security and defense, based on the geographical characteristics of border areas, by establishing a link between development indicators and security plans, introduces strategies for sustainable development of border areas, that are bound to each other.
Security considerations are among those categories that have received less attention in macro-planning. In addition, awareness of the current situation is essential for any kind of careful planning for the development and progress of regions, especially in less developed provinces (Alipour et al., 2016: 159). The most important issues and problems in the formulation and implementation of planning in the country, include; Lack of attention to geographical-security considerations in locating the bases of law enforcement, border and military units, vital and sensitive centers and facilities, commercial, economic and communication uses. These issues have made political borders vulnerable to threats, military and terrorist attacks, border vulnerability to armed and opposition groups, border insecurity, dissatisfaction and conflict among border residents, poverty and underdevelopment, etc. in the country’s border areas.
Materials & Methods
The method of this research is descriptive-analytical and data analysis has been done with a quantitative and qualitative (mixed) analysis approach. To analyze the data, the method of contextual and basic theory (foundation data) has been used. In terms of method, this research is descriptive and survey based on field work, using open questionnaire, closed questionnaire and using SPSS and MAXQDA analytical software and Arc GIS. In MAXQDA software, it was proved that border management indicators are effective in security management, implementation and execution of security plans along the country’s political borders. After classifying the extracted indices, to examine the factor status of each of the indices under the relevant components through factor analysis in SPSS software, factors were classified into three categories. In order to analyze the status of application of selected indicators in the northwestern borders of the country, a questionnaire was designed and referred to the expert community was statistically analyzed.
Results & Discussion
Based on factor analysis; Thirteen border operational plans based on indicators Border planning was evaluated in the form of three factors that after reviewing the indicators: first factor; designing of ambush and anti-ambush operations in the border area is based on the shape of the land, the location of natural features in relation to the passages, the location of the escape routes and the connection points, the second factor; In the border monitoring and control planning, determining the location of telecommunication and communication systems in the region based on the situation of the repression points with enough view of the surrounding areas, the third factor; Determining the optimal routes for border patrols is based on the geographical realities prevailing in the border strip like land slope, distance to zero border, snowfall, flooding, etc., these three main plans were selected among the border operational plans influenced by border planning indicators in the northwestern borders of the country.
By analyzing the status of application of border management indicators in the implementation of plans in the border areas of the studied provinces, which was based on the Likert questionnaire and referring to the expert community, the status of the provinces was determined based on calculations and statistical analysis. Then, by summarizing the mean of the indicators based on which three provinces were examined, the status of the provinces was compared and ranked. Based on the results of statistical analysis, the first place is Ardabil province with an average of 3.92, the second place is East Azerbaijan province with an overall average of 3.64 and the third place is West Azerbaijan province with an overall average of 3.61.