سیستم های اطلاعات جغرافیایی و برنامه ریزی روستایی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

عضو هیأت علمی دانشگاه پیام نور

چکیده

بررسی جنبه­ های گوناگون برنامه ریزی روستایی و تصمیم گیری در رابطه با آن، نیازمند داشتن اطلاعات در مورد زمینه ­های تاریخی، وضعیت کنونی و پیش­بینی شرایط آتی محیط­ های روستایی است. در این نوشته سه چشم­ انداز از تکنولوژی، مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است. یکی از مهمترین چالش ­هایی که در برنامه­ ریزی روستایی با آن مواجه می­ باشیم، آن است که دسترسی، ارزیابی، ترکیب و پردازش طیف وسیعی از اطلاعات بصری، بسیار مشکل بوده و درک و تجزیه و تحلیل آنها توانفرسا می ­باشد. با افزایش کاربرد فن­ آوری رقومی در برنامه­ ریزی روستایی، تقاضا برای تجزیه و تحلیل، ذخیره و نمایش پایگاه های محیطی پیچیده، افزایش یافت و باعث ایجاد قابلیت اعتماد بیشتر بر کامپیوتر شد. به هر جهت، اتخاذ تصمیم در مورد کاربرد یک سیستم استراتژیک در زمینه ­های مربوط به پردازش یا بهره­ گیری از نرم ­افزار خاص برای کسب اطلاعات، ضرورتی بسیار حیاتی می­ باشد. چرا که برای کاربردهای ویژه طیفی وسیع از ابزارهای کامپیوتری جهت پاسخگویی به سوالات خاص، مورد نیاز می­ باشد. هدف چنین سیستم های پشتیبانی کننده ­ای، فراهم  آوردن زمینه لازم برای برنامه ­ریزی از یک طرف و ارائه آگاهی­ های کافی برای مدیریت مؤثر و کاربرد تمام منابع قابل دسترس از طرف دیگر می­ باشد.

عنوان مقاله [English]

Geographic Information Systems and Rural Planning

نویسنده [English]

  • Rostam Saberifar
Member of Faculty, Payam Nour University
چکیده [English]

Examination of different aspects of rural planning and decision making requires information about historical backgrounds and current situation as well as prediction of future conditions of rural environments. In this paper, technology has been investigated from three points of view. One of the most important challenges we face in rural planning is that access, evaluation, combination and processing of a wide range of visual information are very difficult and their understanding and analysis is enervating. With increase of applications of digital technology in rural planning, demand for analyzing, storing and displaying complex environmental bases has increased, and has created more trust in the computer. In general, it is vital to make a decision about the application of a strategic system in areas related to processing or utilization of a particular software for obtainment of information, because in special applications a wide range of computer tools is needed to answer specific questions. The purpose of such supportive systems is to provide the necessary background for planning on the one hand and present sufficient information for effective management and utilization of all available sources on the other.

1- RHIND, D. and MOUSNEY, H., 1989, Understanding GIS. London: Taylor & Francis.
2- RYERSON, R. (ed), 1996, Manual of Remote Sensing (Third Edition) . Falls Church, Virginia: American Society of Photogrammetry.
3- STAR, J., and ESTES, J., 1990, Geographic Information Systems: An introduction, Prentic Hall, New Jersey, pp. 303.
4- TIME, 1994, Yime Magazine International, 30, July 25th 1994, 44-50.
5- VALENZULA, C., 1991, Basic principle of Geographic Information Systems. In Renote Sensing and Geographic Information System for Resource Management in Developing Countries, edited by A. Belward and C. Valenzuela. Dordecht: Kluwer Academic, 279-295.
6- VASCONCELOS, M.J., 1995, Intergration of remote  sensing and geographic information system for fire risk management. In Renote Sensing  and GIS Allications to Forest Fire University of Alcala de Heenares, Spain, September 1995, ERSEl., 129-147.
7-VOGT,J., 1996, Land surface temperature retrieval from NOAA AVHRR data, in Advances in the use of AVHRR data for land applications edited by G.D’Souza, A.S. Belward and C.R. Valensuels, Dordecht: Kluwer Academic, 1-30.
8- BELWARD,A.S.1991, Spectral characteristics of vegetation, soil and water, in Remote Sensing and Geographical Information Systemfor Resource Management in Developing Countries, edited by A.S. Belward and C.R. Valenzuels, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic,31-54.
9- BELWARD, A.S> nad VALENSUELA, C.R., 1991, Remote Sensing and Geographical Information Systems forResource Management in Developing Countries, edited by A.S. Belward and C.R. Valenzuels. Dordecht: Kluwer Academic.
10- BURROUGH. P., 1986, Principles of Geographic Information System for land resource assenssment. Clarenden Press: Oxford, 194pp.
11-WILKINSON, G.G. 1996, A review of current issues in the integration of GIS and remote sensing data, International Journal of Geographical Information Systems, 10, 85-101.
12- CHURCHIL, P.N., 1996, The CEO Programme, Special Publication SPI 96.28. European Commission: Space Applications Institute, IRG-Ispra, 21020 (Vareses) Italy.
13- CHUVIECO. E. (1ed.), 1995, Remote Sensing and GIS Applications of Alcala de Heenares Spain, September 1995 ERSEL.
14- CRUTZEN, P. and GOLDAMMER, J. (eds.)1993, The ecological, atmospheric, and climatic importance of the vegetation fires, Report of the Dahlem Workshop on Fire in the Environment, John Wiley& Sons.
15- Downman, I., GUGAN, D.J., MUL:ER, J-P. and PEACEGOOD, G.,1987, The use of SPOT data for mapping and DEM production, in SPOT-1 Image utilization, assessment and results edited by CNES, (Cepadeus Editions: Toulouse). 1213-1220.
16- D’SOUZA, G., BELWARD, A.S. and MAILINGREAU, J-P. (eds.), 1996, Advances in the use of AVHRR data for land Allications, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic, 479p.
17- FOOT, J.S., 1994, Hazard warning in Meteorology; the importance of remote sensing. In Proceedings of the meeting on Natural Hazard Assessment and Mitigation: The unique role of remote sensing, held at the Royal Society, London, on 8th-9th March 1994. London: Royal Society, 13-16.
18- FORSHAW, M.R.B. HASKELL, A., MILLER, P.F., STANLEY, D.J. and TOWNSHEND, J.R.G., 1983, Spetial resolution of remotely sensed imagery, A review paper. D GEOTIFE.
20-JOURNAL, A.G., 1996, Modelling uncertainty and spatial sependence: Dtochastic imaging. International Journal of GIS, 10,517-522.
21- KENNEDY, M and NEYERS, 1977, Spatial Information Systems: Introduction, Louisville, Kentuck: Urban Studies Center.
22- LEGG, G., 1990, DIGITAL satellite imagery from the Soviet Union. In proceedings of the 16th Annual Conference of Remote Sensing Society, Swansea, 19th-21st, September 1990, RSS: Nottingham. 65-74.
23- MASSONETT, D., ROSSI, M., CARMONA, C., ADRAGNA.F., PELTZER, G., FEIGL,K. and RABAUTE, T., 1994, The displacement field of the Landers earthquake mapped by radar interferometry, Nature, 364, 138-142.
24- MATHER, P.M. (ed.), 1993, Geographic Information Handling: research and applications. Chichester: J.Wiley & Sons. Pp 343.
25- PERRY, C.R., and LAUTENSCHLIGER, L.F., 1984, Functional equicalence of spectral vegetation indices, Remote sensing of environment, 14, 169-182.
26-PINTY, B. and VERSTRAETE, M., 1992, GEMI: A nonlinear Index to monitor global vegetation from satellites, Vegetatio, 101, 15-20.