عنوان مقاله [English]
Problem related to water scarcity has always been one of the most important issues to be considered in arid and semi-arid regions. Due to the seasonality of surface water drainages and subsurface structures in these regions, it is necessary to use structures which control and store the water flow in order to be used during arid seasons. One of these types of structures is underground dam to control the flow of water in the subsurface.
In semiarid and arid areas in which deserts are progressing, exploitation of water has been focused on underground surface water resources having the trouble of stability (Ouerdachi, L., et al., 2012). These conditions require the use of surface and underground short dams for exploiting water in developing countries with arid weather situations. At present, these kinds of structures have been desirably featured in terms of both implication and efficacy in performance (Nilsson 1986, Cavalcanti, N.B., 2001).
2. Materials and methods
The area studied is part of Semnan province and its surroundings are 216467 hectares in width which geographically have the coordinates of 53D 81M to 53D 15M eastern longitude and 35D 13M to 35D 85M northern latitude. Evaluation of station climes studied by both Domarten and Amberje indicates that the studied span has a semi dry-cold climate at heights reaching cold-arid climate where lower-height areas exist. The situation of considered area is shown in Figure 1. With respect to climatic conditions, there are many syllabic flows throughout side hills of the area where underground dam’s establishment is a proper way to control aridity problem in arid seasons of this area. The most significant data of this study are related to topography, geology, underground water, and aqueduct resources. Software used in this research are both expert choice to prioritize and Geography information systems to combine data.
In this research, basic criteria of evaluation including water, pedestals, fountain, economic-social criteria have been targeted at the highest range placing indicators and incidentals criteria at other categories of AHP. Then, proper locations for underground dam establishment have been prioritized.
3. Results and discussion
Based on Gorry and Morton method, decision-making supportive systems are either the systems capable of transporting data or computerized systems which can be used to solve our problems clearly or partly clearly known or unknown respectively (Gorry, G. A., and Morton, M.S., 1971). Decision-making supportive systems are models which receive vast majority of data and deliver many solutions specifically designed to overcome the existing problem (Klosterman, R.E., 1997). Decision support systems (DSs) used in identifying proper location to underground dam establishment possess AHP mode and are used in three stages.
Considering climatic conditions over the area studied and existing stream, Underground dam establishment highly affects both performance revising and balancing act in underground water removal. Using new methods instead of traditional and time-consuming ones, can highly help with saving time and cost to underground dam location-finding. In the first step of this research, presented DSs considering eliminating criteria in the area of 216467 hectares in width assign suitable pedestal in each limit which is capable of potential underground dam establishment. Then, in the second step, the most suitable strait in each limit is assigned to the underground dam establishment. In the latest step after weighting each main criterion at its related map and as well adding total values of map pixels together in a software called GIS, 8 locations to underground dam establishment at the second step of location-finding in fifth scenario were prioritized as follows:
First scenario (weights equality of four main criteria) locations: 5, 3, 2, 4, 6, 1
Second scenario (priority with water criterion) locations: 5, 3, 2, 6, 1, 4
Third scenario (priority with pedestals criterion) locations: 5, 6, 4, 3, 1, 2
Forth scenario (priority with fountain criterion) locations: 3, 6, 4, 5, 1, 2
Fifth scenario (priority with economic-social issues) locations: 3, 1, 5, 4, 2, 6
As shown in most scenarios, pedestals A and D mostly take first to third place. Furthermore, theses pedestals as the best ones catering for all groups’ opinion to underground dam establishment can be offered.