عنوان مقاله [English]
Foreign commerce, increase of exports and consequently earning foreign exchange is one of the important tools of economic development in different countries of the world, and sustainable economic development – in the form of diversification of export products – is one of the major courses of action in political, social and economic development of any country.
It is clear that one of the methods of expansion of exports is the establishment of free trade-industrial zones. Creation of such zones is not a new phenomenon in the world, and dates back to early eighteenth century. This option has been tried in many European, American and Asian countries and has played a major role in their development. In other words, free trade-industrial zones have provided the possibility of economic growth of such countries by connecting them to global economy, absorbing foreign investment and utilizing regional potentials. One of the highly successful examples of these zones are those of Southeastern Asian countries and their role in expansion of exports and earning foreign exchange. The growth rate of exports in countries such as Singapore, South Korea, Malaysia, China’s Shanghai and Taiwan are more like legends, and it is claimed that Singapore’s exports of electronic equipment has been more than $20 billion monthly.
One of the economic characteristics of Iran is its single-product nature. Therefore, this economy is highly vulnerable to political and economic challenges and crises, and the country’s current conditions and problems are clear evidences of this claim. In this regard, this country, with the aim of diversifying economic activities and removing some of their problems such as lack of sufficient foreign exchange, modern technologies, management skills, creation of jobs, etc., introduced the Kish, Qeshm and some parts of Chabahar City as free trade-industrial zones in its first five-year economic, social and cultural developmental plan (1987-1993).
What we seek in this paper using historical, descriptive and analytical methods is to know:
What is a free trade-industrial zone and what are its aims?
Which are Iran’s Free trade-industrial zones and what characteristics they have?
What aims does Islamic Republic of Iran follow by creation of such zones?
What are the reasons for determining Chabahar as a free trade-industrial zone?
How has been the performance of the Chabahar free zone in development of Iran and the region?