عنوان مقاله [English]
The computer-based system's structure is mainly hierarchical and GIS is a hierarchical structure that is made up of several sub-systems at different levels, and each sub-system has a certain function. The required set of functions is different according to the type of GIS. Examples of a sub-system include the function of input data and devices, data analysis function, and data
The display and spatial visualization of geographic data can be considered as a GIS sub-system (it should be noted that in cases such as maps preparation, displaying data is the fundamental function of the system.).
We know that cartography is the art, science and technology of mapping (ICA 1973), and in order to achieve alignment with the scientific and technical advancements of the day, the International Cartographic Association's Working Group has recommended the following definition.