عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
Carl Steinitz, in his speech at the EGIS 93, describes the methodology of a project for outlook planning.
In 1990, after nearly twenty-five years of utilizing GIS in many projects, I came to the conclusion that there is a common structure for the continuation of this work, and in the October 1990 wrote a brief article entitled "A Framework for Theory" in the Outlook Journal, and this theoretical framework has become the main pattern of teaching and research in my projects in the last three years. In this article, I will try to present a brief description of this framework and show how it is used in a project.
As a teacher, I have always believed that we should be able to benefit from a comprehensive, integrated and adaptable approach when dealing with theory and practice. I do not accept and indeed reject the "up-to-down" theory of the approach or model of outlook planning which has universal application. Instead, I believe that an appropriate strategy is, first and foremost, a” perception”. My research for the underlying framework in which I organize this process has shown that there is a great deal of structural (and perhaps necessary) similarity among some of the questions raised by outlook planners and other environmental design experts.
Professor Amos Rapoport (University of Wisconsin) has described a useful definition for theories, models and frameworks. He briefly states: “A theory explains, a model predicts and organizes a framework; a framework can be judged based on its rationality and merit, but it has no claims against other frameworks.