عنوان مقاله [English]
In the year 1477, in the city of Bologna (Italy), for the first time, a Geographic Atlas, consisting of twenty-seven maps prepared by Claudius Ptolemy was published. With the information available, it seems that this atlas has been the oldest publication of its kind.
Ptolemy, a scientist and astronomer from Alexandria, edited and completed a handwritten Greek book (Geographia, 120 A.D.) describing preparation of geographic maps with comprehensive annotation. This was the way in which the science of preparation of maps started a revival and became a necessary science. Immediately, major printing companies began to produce numerous copies of it not only in Italy, but this time in Germany. These maps were practically limited to Europe-Asia-the Mediterranean Sea and North Africa (the known world at that time). Until the mid-sixteenth century A.D. the content and documents of Ptolemy’s geographic book remained unchallenged, with the difference that Sebastien Munster for the first time printed this Atlas as one integrated volume instead of separate maps, and wood artists and woodcutters also came to his aid, and by decorating and illustrating its texts and margins, they presented a unique and extremely elegant, beautiful Atlas.