عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
In general, geoid is of particular importance in sciences that are in any way related to measurement of quantities related to physics and geometry of the Earth. Especially in the basic science of geodesy, this hypothetical level is the foundation and also a useful tool for estimating many of the
quantities required by geodesy and sciences related to it.
Considering the importance of this particular level and the need to understand its concept, it seems that the following paper can be considerably useful. It must be mentioned that this paper is based on the doctoral thesis of a graduate student at the University of New Brunswick, Canada, supervised by Professor Vanicek, a distinguished professor of geodesy, hoping to be used by experts, students and enthusiasts in the field.