عنوان مقاله [English]
The people who deal with maps, whether those who aim at surveying or others who use maps as a means of transferring information, are well aware that one of the important issues involved in surveying is preparing map image. The term map image refers to the network of circuits and meridians which provide the first framework for each map, without which no map can be drawn or utilized. The basis of the geographic work is the issue of conveying circuits’ networks and the hypothetical meridians from the round planet onto a flat plane that creates the map. Geographers, from very distant past, were aware of the major fault lying in transforming sphere into flat surface, and have made numerous efforts to make this conveyance take place without any blatant change in earth’s surface features. Since making artificial sphere in a desirable scale is difficult and carrying such globe around would be impractical, geographers and surveyors have tried to make images that show some of the properties and characteristics of the land as they are found in the nature.