عنوان مقاله [English]
Natural and anthropogenic hazards have always endangered human society and settlements. These hazards disrupt normal life of human society and lead to crisis. In this regard, it is necessary for all sectors and institutions in the country to adopt smart strategies for dealing with these natural crises. Moreover, there should be a continuous emphasis on political and economic challenges. As an effective, efficient and precautionary strategy, passive defense explains related requirements and mechanisms, and thus can lead to a reduction of damages resulting from different crises.
Materials and methods
The present applied research takes advantage of a descriptive-analytic method. With the aim of reducing vulnerability of rural border hazardous areas in Marivan County, it investigates passive defense indices from a spatial and comprehensive perspective. In this way, vulnerable areas are identified and appropriate strategies are selected in accordance with the situation of passive defense in villages of this county.
Required information was collected using documentary resources, especially basic geological maps and land use of the region. Then, indices were weighed using binary comparison method and fuzzy logic, and a final compiled map was prepared for the situation of passive defense. In this regard, 14 security, social and natural indices were selected as passive defense indices in accordance with the regional conditions. Afterwards, indices were weighed using AHP method and a Fuzzy weight was assigned to each layer. Accordingly, specified indices were mapped and compiled using Arc GIS.
Results and Conclusions
The present study takes advantage of a comprehensive and spatial approach to investigate human and natural standards of passive defense in villages of Marivan region in Iranian border. Findings indicated that human standards, including population of villages, distance from main roads and village centers are the most effective and important parameters influencing the status of passive defense in the studied villages. Also, final zoning indicated that the region is mostly in an appropriate status regarding passive defense. But regarding the spatial zoning, most villages (89 villages) are classified as average (quite appropriate). Regarding passive defense, more than 65% of the villages in this county are classified in a quite appropriate (average) class, which indicates that short-term and applied programs must be rapidly adopted to improve the fragile condition of these villages and prevent from deterioration of their status in passive defense. Moreover, more than 75 percent of low populated villages (i.e. fewer than 150 people) are classified as average. Since services and facilities are also allocated based on the village population, it should be expected that low declining population of villages rapidly increases vulnerability and reduces the desirability of their passive defense status. On the other hand, among six rural district centers in the study area, five rural district centers are in an average condition and only one is in a good condition. In rural planning system of the country, rural district centers are considered to be the focal point of rural areas, and provide the most developed services. Thus, it is necessary to use these rural districts as communicational centers for crisis management. 84% of rural district centers in the study area are in an average or fragile state, which may increase vulnerability and result in serious concerns regarding the status of passive defense in these villages. Also, random and normal distribution of these villages is considered to be a relative advantage for passive defense situation. But based on this principle, similar actions must be carried out in all villages to improve passive defense status throughout the rural district. According to findings and field observations, following solutions are offered to improve the status of passive defense in villages of this county:
- Considering principles of passive defense in planning of rural development in the county.
- Moving toward human centered passive defense through people participation and their education.
- Moving away from a purely military and structural viewpoint toward passive defense by officials responsible for city development and security.
- Paying attention to standards of passive defense with the aim of determining the most appropriate rural centers or rural districts.
- Detailed and accurate short term investigation of the status of passive defense in rural districts and elimination of deficiencies and weaknesses, especially regarding human standards, with the aim of improving the status of these centers.
- Compliance with the principle of spatial justice in accessing and distributing services and economic and social facilities in villages of the county with an emphasis on low-populated and remote villages.