عنوان مقاله [English]
Nowadays, studying urban expansion is very importantin developing countries. Rapid growth of cities has devastating environmental impacts,and irreparable economic and social consequences. Moreover, studying urban expansion is of great importance for managers and planners of a society. Land surface temperature (LST) is one of the important parameters in urban-regional planning.Urban heat, which is usually referred to as urban heat island, can affect human health, theecosystem, surrounding air, air pollution, urban planning, and energy management. The phenomenon of urban heat island (UHI) is closely related toland-use changes in urban areas, especially when natural surfaces turn intoimpermeable urban surfaces, and increases heat flux and reduces latent heat.
Materials & Methods
In this study, a collection of Landsat-5 multi-temporal satellite images received in 1986, 1989, 1993, 1998, 2001, 2008, and Landsat 8 multi-temporal satellite images received in 2013, 2015 and 2017, was used along with night images of the MODIS sensor recieved in 2001, 2008, 2013, 2015, 2017 (on the same day Landsat-5 and Landsat-8 satellite images were received). In order to classify land cover and calculate land surface temperature usingLandsat 5, Landsat 8 and MODIS sensorsatellite images, initial pre-processing (radiometric and geometric corrections)was performed.In order to classifyland cover in the study area, training areas were selected using Google Earth andthen, land cover classification was carried outusing Neural Network Algorithm. Since, classifying urban areas wasthe priority ofthe present study, Normalized Difference Built-up Index (NDBI) was also used.Ultimately, pixelidentified by classification algorithm and NDBI index was allocated tourban areas. A simple relationship suggested by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) was used to estimate land surface temperature from Landsat-5 imageries.Split-window algorithm was also used to estimate land surface temperature from Landsat-8 and MODIS imageries. Since, Landsat-8 and MODIS imageries were collectedwith only afew hours (or less than that)time difference, and their thermal bands’spectral rangeswere close to each other, Landsat-8 thermal bands’emissivity coefficient with a higher spatial resolution (30 m) was used to calculate land surface temperature from MODIS images.
Results & Discussion
Classifying land cover in Shahr-e Kordusing Landsat-5 and Landsat-8 imageries received in 1986, 1989, 1993, 1998, 2001, 2008, 2013, 2015, and 2017 indicated that in this31-year time period,residential areas were approximately duplicatedand reached from 1004 hectares to 2112 hectares. Analysis of land surface temperature maps using Landsat 5, and Landsat 8 imageries indicated that urban areas and areas with dense vegetation had lower surface temperatures compared to areas with thin vegetation cover. Therefore, land surface temperature of urban areas is lower than the surrounding areas. However, land surface temperature obtained from MODIS imageries indicated that land surface temperature of urban areas is higher at nights. Therefore, urban heat islands in this city occur at nights. Results indicated that with increasingexpansion of urban areas, urban heat islands also intensifyat nights.
Although, Shahr-ekordis a less developed urban area as compared to other Iranian metropolises,expansion of its constructed areas can stillhave negative effects on the environment and climate of the region. The present study investigates urban growth, and itsinfluence on land surface temperature and occurrence of urban heat island. Thermal maps produced in the present study indicated that daytime air temperature of this city was relatively lower than other regions. But this is not the case at nights: compared to other areas,residential areas have a higher temperature at nights. This indicates the existence of a heat island in the city, and possibly have adverse and devastating effects on humidity, reduces precipitation, changes local winds and the climate. Results also indicate that urban expansion have directlyaffected urban heat islands. Thus, urban heat islandshave intensified and expanded during this time period. Therefore, it is concluded that there is a direct relationship between land surface temperature and land use type.