تبیین ژئوپلیتیکی منازعات مرزی و سرزمینی کمربند صفر تا 15 درجه شمالی آفریقا از پایان جنگ سرد تا 2014 میلادی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشکده علوم انسانی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس تهران

2 عضو هیأت علمی گروه ژئوپلتیک مرکز مطالعات آفریقا، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس تهران

10.22131/sepehr.2020.38614

چکیده

منازعه اشاره به اختلاف و ناسازگاری در رویکردها، اهداف و اقدامات بازیگران در سطوح محلی، ملی، منطقهای و جهانی دارد و دارای انواع مختلف است. منازعه مرزی و سرزمینی یکی از گونههای منازعه و از نوع منازعات بینالمللی میان کشورها با همسایه یا همسایگان خود بر سر مالکیت و حاکمیت بر مناطق مرزی مشترک است. در میان ریشههای منازعه، نقش ارزشهای جغرافیایی برجسته‌‌تر است. قاره آفریقا از گذشته تاکنون، درگیر انواع منازعات بوده است که کانون آنها را میتوان کمربند صفر تا 15 درجه شمالی این قاره دانست؛ منطقهای که یکی از پر منازعهترین مناطق جهان پس از جنگ سرد است. یکی از گونههای منازعات کمربند صفر تا 15 درجه شمالی آفریقا، منازعات مرزی و سرزمینی است. با توجه به اهمیت تحولات این منطقه و نقشآفرینی متقابل جغرافیا، سیاست و قدرت در منازعات مرزی و سرزمینی آن، ضرورت دارد تا ریشههای این منازعات در چارچوب ژئوپلیتیک شناسایی و تبیین شود. پژوهش حاضر از نوع بنیادی نظری است و در دسته تحقیقات «توصیفی تحلیلی» قرار میگیرد. روش تحلیل اطلاعات، کیفی است و با بهرهگیری از منابع کتابخانهای، در پی پاسخ به این سؤال است که از دید ژئوپلیتیک، ریشهها و علل منازعات مرزی و سرزمینی کمربند صفر تا 15 درجه شمالی آفریقا کدامند؟ نتایج پژوهش نشان میدهد که در وقوع منازعات مرزی و سرزمینی کمربند صفر تا 15 درجه شمالی آفریقا، 9 علت ریشهای با ماهیت ژئوپلیتیکی مؤثر بوده که نتایج آن در قالب «نظریه ژئوپلیتیکی منازعات مرزی و سرزمینی» قابل تعمیم به منازعات مرزی و سرزمینی در سایر نقاط جهان است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Geopolitical Explanation of Boundary and Territorial Conflicts Case study: 0 - 15-degreenorth belt of Africa from the end of the Cold War to 2014

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Reza Hafeznia 1
  • Meysam Mirzaei Tabar 2
1 Professor of Political Geography, Tarbiat Modarres University
2 Faculty member of Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Extended Abstract
Introduction
Conflict represents a dispute or war between two or more actors on a local, national, regional or global scale. Geographical factors and values play a fundamental role in conflicts. Actually, conflicts occur due to a combination of geographical, political, and power-related parameters, which can be explained within the framework of geopolitics. Africa has long been involved in a variety of conflicts most of which relate to the 0-15-degreeNorthernlatitude of the continent. From 29 countries in the region, 15 are involved in 11 boundary and territorial conflicts. The present study seeks to find an answer for the question that what the geopolitical roots of boundary and territorial conflicts in the 0 – 15-degree north belt of Africa are?
 Materials & Methods
The current study is considered to be a ‘Basic theoretical Research’ in terms of goals, and a “descriptive” study in terms of nature and method. In terms of attitude, it is classified as a “descriptive-analytic” research. Data collection is performed by documentary method using library resources. Qualitative method of data analysis is applied.
 Results & Discussion
In 0 – 15-degree north belt of Africa, the following variables are discussedas rootsof boundary and territorial conflicts:
“Territorial conflicts among different ethnical groups and tribes in border areas of different countries” are considered to be among the effective causes of conflicts in 5 countries and 4 cases including Somalia and Kenya; Kenya and Ethiopia; Kenya, South Sudan and Uganda; and the northern half of Kenya bordering Ethiopia, South Sudan and Uganda.
“Territoriality and territorial expansionism of statesand their endeavor to conquer space and control its resources” are considered to be causes of conflicts in 12 countries and 6 casesincluding Ethiopia and Eritrea; Sudan and South Sudan; Cameroon and Nigeria; Ghana and Côte d’Ivoire; Equatorial Guinea with Gabon; and Uganda and area around the Albert lakein theDemocratic Republic of Congo.
“Dispute over a strategic border area between countries” has been an effective variablein 8 countries and 4 casesincluding between Ethiopia and Eritrea over Assab port; Ethiopia with Egypt and Sudan over Nile; Cameroon and Nigerian over the Bakassi Peninsula; and Eritrean and Yemen over Hanish-Zukar archipelago. 
“Actions of colonial powers which result in determining and mapping territorial boundaries of countries” are considered to be among roots of conflicts in 18 countries and 10 casesincluding conflicts between Ethiopia and Eritrea; Ethiopia with Egypt and Sudan over Nile; Eritrea and Djibouti; Sudan and South Sudan; Cameroon and Nigerian over the Bakassi Peninsula; Ghana and Côte d’Ivoire; Equatorial Guinea and Gabon; ethnic and tribal conflicts in boundary  regions of Somalia and Kenya; Eritrean and Yemen over Hanish-Zukar archipelago; and Uganda and area around the Albert lake in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
“Settling of a minority group from the neighboring country in a disputed border region” has been among the causes of conflicts in 4 countries and 2 cases including conflicts between Cameroon and Nigerian, and Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo.
“Historical mentality and Nationalism” have been among effective variables in conflicts of 6 countries and 3 cases including conflicts between Ethiopia and Eritrea; Sudan and South Sudan; and Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo.
“Weak performance in dividing and exact demarking ofboundary” has been among influential causes of conflicts in 6 countries and 3 cases including conflicts between Ethiopia and Eritrea; Sudan and South Sudan; and Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo.
“Climate condition and climate change” has been among the causes of conflicts in 5 countries and 2 cases including conflict of Ethiopia with Egypt and Sudan over Nile; and ethnic and tribal conflicts in boundary regions of Somalia and Kenya. 
“Remote areas and Marginalization” have been among the causes of conflicts in 5 countries and 2 cases including ethnic and tribal conflicts in border regions of Somalia and Kenya; and the northern half of Kenya bordering Ethiopia, South Sudan and Uganda.
 Conclusion
Geopolitical roots of boundary and territorial conflicts in the 0 – 15-degree north belt of Africafrom the end of the Cold War in 1991 to 2014 have been ranked based on their influence as follows:
1. Actions of colonial powers which results in determining and mapping territorial boundaries of countries;
2. Territoriality and territorial expansionism of statesand their endeavor to conquer space and control its resources;
3. Dispute over a strategic border area between countries;
4. Territorial conflicts among different ethnical groups and tribes in boundary regions of different countries;
5. Historical mentality and Nationalism;
6. Weak performance in dividing and exact demarking of boundary;
7. Climate condition and climate change;
8. Remote areas and Marginalization;
9. Settling of a minority group from the neighboring country in a disputed border region
These roots are geopolitical in nature and the role of geopolitics, along with a combination of mutual relationshipsamong politics, geography and power is observedin each one of them. Due to the inclusiveness of the present study in introducing geopolitical causes of boundary and territorial conflicts, which have the potential of creating this type of conflicts in other regions of the world, the results of the present research are generalizable. Therefore, the results are generalizable to boundary and territorial conflicts in other parts of the worldwithin the framework of “the geopolitical theory of boundary and territorial conflicts”.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • geopolitics
  • Conflict
  • Border and territorial conflict
  • Africa
  • 0 – 15-degree north belt of Africa
1- حافظ‌ نیا، محمدرضا (1379)؛ مبانی مطالعات سیاسی - اجتماعی (جلد اول). قم: نشر سازمان حوزه‌ها و مدارس علمیه خارج کشور.

2- حافظ‌ نیا، محمدرضا (1384)؛ اصول و مفاهیم ژئوپلیتیک، مشهد: پاپلی.

3- حافظ‌ نیا، کاویانی‌راد؛ محمدرضا، مراد (1393)؛ فلسفه جغرافیای سیاسی، تهران: پژوهشکده مطالعات راهبردی.

4- قربانی‌نژاد، ریباز (1392)؛ الگویابی سرچشمه‌های ژئوپلیتیکی تنش در روابط کشورها (مطالعه موردی: آسیای جنوب غربی)؛ رساله دکتری به راهنمایی دکتر محمدرضا حافظ‌نیا و مشاوره دکتر زهرا احمدی‌پور و دکتر سید عبدالعلی قوام، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، مهر.

5- هاگت، پیتر (1375)؛ جغرافیا: ترکیبی نو (جلد دوم)، ترجمه شاپور گودرزی نژاد، تهران: سمت.

6. Abebe Daniel (2014), Egypt, Ethiopia, and the Nile: The Economics of International Water Law, University of Chicago Public Law & Legal Theory Working Paper, No. 484.

7.   Acheampong Theo (2015), Review of the Ghana-Côte d’ivoire maritime border dispute ruling: Round one, Ghana Growth and Development Platform, Issue 10, April. Retrieved from: http://ghanagdp.org/inc/uploads/2015/09/GGDP_CIN10_Ghana-Cote-DIvoire-Maritime-Dispute-Final-version1.pdf

8.   Agnew John (2003). Geopolitics: re-visioning world politics, London and New York: Routledge.

9.   Azarva Jeffrey D. (2011), Conflict on the Nile: International Watercourse Law and the Elusive Effort to Create a Transboundary Water Regime in the Nile Basin, Temple International & Comparative Law Journal, Vol. 25(2).

10. Beckly, Agbor Tabetah (2013), The Perceptions/Views of Cameroon – Nigerian Bakassi border conflict by the Bakassi people, Master’s thesis, Sweden: Uppsala University.

11. Bening Raymond Bagulo (2014), The Ghana-La Côte D’Ivoire maritime boundary dispute, Ghana Journal of Geography Vol. 6.

12. Cechvala Sarah (2011), Rainfall & Migration: Somali-Kenyan Conflict, ICE Case, Number 256, December. Retrieved from: http://mandalaprojects.com/ice/ice-cases/somalia-rainfall.htm

13. Collins John M (1998), Military Geography: For Professionals and the Public, Washington, DC: National Defense University Press.

14. Craze Joshua (2014), Contested Borders: Continuing Tensions over the Sudan–South Sudan Border, Geneva: Small Arms Survey, Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies.

15. Dzurek Daniel J. (1996), Eritrea-Yemen Dispute Over the Hanish Islands, IBRU Boundary and Security Bulletin, Vol. 4, No. 1, Spring.

16. Fahey Dan (2010), Guns and Butter: Uganda’s Involvement in Northeastern Congo 2003–2009. In: L’Afrique des Grands Lacs: Annuaire 2009-2010, Edit by Stefaan Marysse, Filip Reyntjens & Stef Vandeginste, vol. 14, Paris & Anvers (Belgique): L’Harmattan, Centre d’Etude de la Région des Grands Lacs d’Afrique.

17. Familugba, Jonathan Oluropo & OJO, Olayinka Olabinpe (2013), Nigeria-Cameroon Border Relations: An Analysis of the Conflict and Cooperation (1970-2004), International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. Vol.3 no. 11.

18. Frynas, Jedrzej George (2000), Foreign Investment and International Boundary Disputes in Africa: Evidence from the Oil Industry, Occasional Paper Series, no. 9, Africa Studies Centre, School of. International Studies and Law, Coventry University.

19. Gebreluel Goitom (2014), Ethiopia’s Grand Renaissance Dam: Ending Africa’s Oldest Geopolitical Rivalry?, The Washington Quarterly, Vol. 37, Iss. 2.

20. Haji Mukhtar Mohamed (2003), Historical dictionary of Somalia (New ed), African historical dictionary series, no.87, Lanham: Scarecrow Press.

21. Ibekwe Chux (2012), Natural Resource Conflict: The Bakassi Lesson for Sudan and the Republic of South Sudan over Abyei, Journal of Global Initiatives: Policy, Pedagogy, Perspective, Vol. 7, No. 1, Article 5.

22. Ikome, Nguendi Francis (2004), The Inviolability of Africa’s Colonial Boundaries: Lessons Drawn from the Cameroon Nigeria-border Conflict, Occasional paper no 47, Midrand (South Africa): Institute for Global Dialogue Johannesburg South Africa.

23. International Crisis Group (2003), Ethiopia and Eritrea: War or Peace?, Africa Report N°68, Nairobi/Brussels: International Crisis Group (ICG), 24 September.    

24. International Crisis Group (2013), Sudan’s Spreading Conflict (I): War in South Kordofan, Africa Report N°198, Brussels: International Crisis Group (ICG).

25. Jönsson Björn (2013), Water as a Source of Cooperation or Conflict? A Case Study of The Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam, Sweden: Lund University/Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.

26. Kammel Arnold H. (2013), The relationship between Sudan and South Sudan after independence – Interdependence a key variables for sustainable peace, AIES Fokus 3/2013, Hainburg/Donau (Austria): Austria Institut für Europa- und Sicherheitspolitik (AIES).

27. Keith Bruce, Epp Kevin, Houghton Michael, Lee Jonathan, and Mayville Robert (2014), Water As A Conflict Driver: Estimating The Effects Of Climate Change And Hydroelectric Dam Diversion On Nile River Stream Flow During The 21st Century, Report 2014-4, West Point (New York): Center for Nation Reconstruction and Capacity Development.

28. Kornprobst Markus (2002), The management of border disputes in African regional subsystems: comparing West Africa and the Horn of Africa, journal of modern African studies, Vol. 40 (3).

29. Leff Jonah (2009), Pastoralists at War: Violence and Security in the Kenya-Sudan-Uganda Border Region, International Journal of Conflict and Violence, Vol. 3 (2).

30. Marine Corps Intelligence Activity (2014), Uganda Country Handbook, United States: Marine Corps Intelligence Activity, Department of Defense. Retrieved from: https://info.publicintelligence.net/MCIA-UgandaHandbook.pdf

31. Menkhaus Ken (2005), Kenya-Somalia Border Conflict Analysis, Report, Washington, DC: United States Agency for International Development (USAID), 31 August.

32. Menkhaus Ken (2008), The rise of a mediated state in northern Kenya: the Wajir story and its implications for state-building, Afrika Focus, Vol. 21, No. 2.

33. Mesfin Berouk (2008), The Eritrea-Djibouti border dispute. In: Situation Report, Institute for Security Studies (Issue 15 September 2008).

34. Namasaka Martin (2015), Addressing Kenya-Somalia conflict and counter terrorism strategies, Africa at LSE blog, London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE). Retrieved from: http://blogs.lse.ac.uk/africaatlse/2015/01/28/addressing-kenya-somalia-conflict-and-counter-terrorism-strategies/

35. Nunzio, Jack Di (2013), Conflict on the Nile: The future of transboundary water disputes over the world’s longest river, Strategic Analysis Paper, Australia: Future Directions International Pty Ltd.

36. Oduntan Gbenga (2015), International Law and Boundary Disputes in Africa. New York: Routledge.

37. Ottaway Marina and El-Sadany Mai (2012), Sudan: From Conflict to Conflict, Washington DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.

38. Petterson, Donald (2008), Abyei unresolved: A threat to the North-South agreement. In: Implementing Sudan’s comprehensive peace agreement: Prospects and challenges. Washington, D.C.: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars Africa Program.

39. Pkalya Ruto, Adan Mohamud & Masinde Isabella (2003), Conflict in Northern Kenya: A Focus on the Internally Displaced Conflict Victims in Northern Kenya, Nairobi: iTga-Ea & DTp Martin Karimi publishers.

40. Salman, Salman M. A. (2013), The Abyei territorial dispute between North and South Sudan: Why has its resolution proven difficult? In: Land and post‐conflict peace building, Edited by Jon Unruh and Rhohri C.Williams. London: Earthscan.

41. Shaibu, M. T., Azom, S. N. & Nwanze, E. S (2015), An Appraisal Of The Dominant Causes Of Boundary Conflict Between Nigeria And Cameroun: The Bakassi Peninsula Perspective, Global Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol.3, No.9, September.

42. Smidt Wolbert G.C. (2012), History, Historical Arguments and the Ethio‐Eritrean conflict: between xenophobic approaches and an ideology of unity, Stichproben - Vienna Journal of African Studies, Volume 12, Issue 22.

43. Solomon Hussein (2014), Potential for cooperation rather than conflict in the face of water degradation: the cases of the Nile River and Okavango River basins, Journal for Contemporary History, Vol. 39, Iss. 1.

44. Stansfield Gareth R.V. (2001), The 1995-96 Yemen-Eritrea conflict over the islands of Hanish and Jabal Zuqar: a geopolitical analysis, Durham: Centre for Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies, University of Durham.

45. Swain Ashok (2011), Challenges for water sharing in the Nile basin: changing geo-politics and changing climate, Hydrological Sciences Journal, Vol. 56, Iss. 4.

46. Tarlebbea Nicholas, K. and Baroni Sam (2010), The Cameroon and Nigeria Negotiation Process over the Contested Oil rich Bakassi Peninsula, Journal of Alternative Perspectives in the Social Sciences, Vol 2, No 1.

47. Temesgen Amsale K. (2010), Climate change to conflict?: lessons from Southern Ethiopia and Northern Kenya, Fafo-report 2010:09, Norway: Allkopi AS.

48. Tesfamichael Meala (2011), The Causes of Return to Conflict and The Geopolitical Dynamics in The Horn of Africa: The Eritrean-Ethiopian Border Conflict, MA African Studies Politics Major Dissertation, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, September.

49. Vlassenroot Koen & Raeymaekers Timothy (2004), The politics of rebellion and intervention in Ituri: The emergence of a new political complex?, African Affairs, Vol. 103, No. 412.

50. Westerkamp Meike & Houdret Annabelle (2010), Peacebuilding across Lake Albert: Reinforcing environmental cooperation between Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo, Brussels: Initiative for Peacebuilding.

51. Wolfinbarger Susan, Drake Jonathan and Ashcroft Eric (2015), Monitoring Border Conflict with Satellite Imagery: Djibouti and Eritrea—2008, Report, Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS).

52. Yoon Mi Yung (2009), Territorial Disputes in the Gulf of Guinea: The Cases of Nigeria-Cameroon and Gabon-Equatorial Guinea, Paper Prepared for the 21st International Political Science Association World Congress, July 12-16, Santiago, Chile. Retrieved from: http://paperroom.ipsa.org/papers/view/764