عنوان مقاله [English]
Applying GPS/IMU data in aerial triangulation has increased the strength of photogrammetric block and reduced the number of ground control pointsneededfor block adjustment. Systematic errors in data used fortriangulation reduce the accuracy of the process and make ground control pointsnecessarydespitetheexistenceof GPS/IMU data. Therefore, reducing systematic errorsin data naturally increases the accuracy of triangulation and reduces the number of ground control points required forblock adjustment andthe number of crossstrips used to eliminate systematic errorsin GPS data.
Digital images captured by the National Cartographic Centerof Iran from an area in Fars province usingUltraCam-Xpcamera in2010 were used in the present study to investigate the roleof self-calibration parameters in the reduction of ground control points and cross strips requiredfor block adjustmentin aerial triangulation. The intended block consists of 58 images and four strips; two of which are cross strips. Control points in this block include eight horizontal control points, eight vertical control points and eight full control points. Each image has a dimension of 11310 by 17310 pixels, a pixel dimensionof 6 microns, afocal length of 10500 microns, an end lap of 70%, and a side lap of 30%. Theregion has an average elevation of 760 m. Given the focal length, flight height and pixel dimensions, ground resolution is around 12 centimeters. Each image covers anarea of 2077.2 mlength and 1357.2 mwidth on the ground.
The present study investigates theroleof self-calibration parameters, such as elimination of systematic error in GPS/IMU data and image sensor,in increased accuracy oftriangulation, and reduced number of ground control points and cross strips required for block adjustment. To reach this aim, optimal self-calibration parameters are determined using a genetic algorithm and the identified parameters are used in the bundle block adjustment. Variance components estimation method was used to solve the problem of equationsinstability. This method not only stabilizes the equation, but also determines the optimal weight matrix during the adjustment process.
Results and Discussion
Since images at a scale of 1:2000 were used in the present study, maximum RMSE equals 60 cm and maximum residual errorsequal 1.2 m. Using additional parameters to eliminate systematic errors results in an acceptable maximum error at the control points, but absence of additional parameters results in an unacceptable maximum error at the horizontal and vertical control points even in the presence of crossstrips. In addition to the evaluation of horizontal and vertical errors at the ground control points, horizontal and vertical RMSE of the checkpointsare also used to evaluate the geometric accuracy of aerial triangulation. Again, applying additional parameters keeps the RMSE at a much lower level than the accepted limit, while absence of additional parameters results in a horizontal and verticalRMSE higher than the accepted limit even in the presence of cross strips. It should be noted that using cross strips reduces RMSE at the vertical component.
Results indicated that using self-calibration parameters and reducing errorsin data used for the adjustment process decreases the number of control points and cross strips required for block adjustment.Using optimal self-calibration parameters(even in the absence of control points) resultsin a maximum RMSE of 0.143 m at the checkpoints, while absence of these parameters results in a maximum RMSE error of around one meter with or without cross strips. Genetic algorithm is capable of determining optimal self-calibration parameters. It is also capable of optimizing nonlinear functions. Therefore, it is not necessary to linearize the equations before determination of self-calibration parameters, which reduces the amount of necessary calculations.
Variance components estimation can also be used along with the bundle block adjustment method to stabilize the equations and determine the optimal weight matrix. As a result, it is suggested to take advantage of these three methods, i.e. block adjustment, stabilization and optimal weight matrixdetermination, simultaneously.