عنوان مقاله [English]
Along with other environmental factors, climatic conditions are among the most important factors affecting social, moral and cultural problems. People behave differently in different climates. Quetelet and Gurreydeveloped crime statistics in Franceandinvestigatedits relationship with physical environment.Thus, they studied the effects of geography and climatic conditions on human behavior, including criminal behavior. In Climate and Crime, Ellen J. Cohen argues that situational approaches, selected rationaltheories and routine activity theory all suggest that climate has a major impact on the rate of crimes and criminal behaviors.
Based on their observations, Quetelet and Gurreyformulatedthethermic law of delinquencyin criminology. Based on statistical studies, they concluded that violent crimes are more frequent in hot seasons and hot regions, while in cold regions and cold seasons, more deceptive crimes such as crimes against property requiring thinking and imaginationoccurmore often. It should be noted that crime is a social phenomenon affected by various factors. Environmental conditions can also intensify the threat of human behaviors. The present study seeks to investigate the relationship between the climatic element of temperature and the occurrence of crime in Shiraz, Abadeh and Larestancounties of Fars province?
Materials & Methods
The present study is applied in nature and purpose, while taking advantage of an analytical-descriptive method. 3 meteorological stations of Shiraz, Abadeh and Larestan were studied here. Investigated data included the seasonal average temperature and seasonal rate of crimes for the2008-2013 period. Seasonal rate of crimes including social corruption, theft, forgery, strife, mischief, intimidation and coercion, smuggling, drug-related crimes, murder, and suspicious death were investigated in Shiraz, Abadeh and Larestan, which have a meteorological station. Crime statistics were collected from the Prevention Police Department of Fars province Law Enforcement Force and statistics related to the climatic elements of temperature were obtained from Fars Meteorological Department. Different descriptive and inferential statistical methods were used to analyze the data and Pearson correlation coefficient test was used in inferential statistics. Data analysis in the present study included two stages. First, the seasonal and annual percentage of various crimes were studied in each of the mentioned cities. In the second stage, the correlation coefficient between the average temperature and the total (seasonal) number of crime occurrence were investigated.
Investigation of various crime occurrence in Shiraz, Abadeh and Larestancounties of Fars province revealed that in spring, strife and affray (47.11), theft (23.16) and social corruption (19.16) were the most frequently committed crimes in Shiraz. However, intimidation and coercion (0.32), smuggling (0.24), forgery (0.20) and murder (0.05) had the lowest frequency in Shiraz during spring. In summer, strife and affray (47.71), theft (24.64) and social corruption (20.95)are considered to be the most frequent crimes, while intimidation and reluctance (0.33), smuggling (0.23), forgery (0.20) and murder (0.03) arethe least frequent crimes, respectively. In autumn, strife and affray (44.36), theft (27.71) and social corruption (18.24) were more common, whileintimidation and coercion (0.33), smuggling (0.27), forgery (0.26) and murder (0.04) had the lowest frequency. In winter, strife and affray (43.92), theft (29.99) and social corruption (16.84) were the most frequently reported crimes,whileintimidation and coercion (0.35), smuggling (1.4), forgery (0.24) and murder (0.02) were the least frequently reported crimes. Findings indicate that during the 2008-2013 period, strife and affray (45.86), theft (28/28) and social corruption (18.84) were the most common crimesin Shiraz city, while smuggling (0.43), intimidation and coercion (0.33), forgery (0.22) and murder (0.03) were the least common crimes. Generally in the three counties, crimes against the person such as strife and affray, murder, mischief, intimidation and coercion were more frequently reported in warm seasons (spring and summer). However, crimes against property, such as theft, were more frequent in cold seasons (autumn and winter). Strife and affray(0.95) in Shiraz have the highest correlation with the seasonal average temperature. There is a negative correlation between the crime of strife and affray and the seasonal average precipitation in Shiraz. The same relationship existsbetweenstrife and affray and the seasonal average relative humidity in Shiraz. In Larestan, drug-related crimes (-0.97) have the highest negative correlation with the seasonal average temperature. In Abadeh city, social corruptions (0.99) have the highest correlation with the seasonal average temperature.
In total, crimes against the person, such as strife, murder, mischief, intimidation and coercion were more commonly reported in the warm seasons of the year (spring and summer) in the three counties on the whole and separately. However, crimes against property such as theft had a higher rate of occurrencein the cold seasons (autumn and winter). Therefore, as crimes against the personare more common in warm seasons and crimes against property are more frequent in cold seasons, it can be concluded that QueteletandGurrey’s thermic law of delinquencyis in force in all the three specified counties. However, this law is not generalizable and it cannot be concluded that crimes against property occur more in cold regions and crimes against the person occurs more in warm regions of Fars province. In this respect, this law only applies to Larestan which is located in the warm region of the province.