Recently, Disaster Mitigation and Management Organization of Iran has focused on construction of disaster management and support bases. To reach such an aim, it is necessary to investigate different areas and select an appropriate geographical location for this type of land use. The selected location must be safe in critical conditions and make the base as efficient as possible. Accurate site selection is a necessary step towards prevention, preparedness and dealing with various disasters. Selecting an appropriate location for these bases is extremely important in their relief operations. Thus, the bases must be properly accessible while having a strong structure unthreatened by any risk. Disaster management measures are based on information analysis and take advantage of geographical information tools for spatial analysis. Geographic Information System (GIS) can be used in all stages of disaster management. Geographic information system is a very useful tool for implementation of logical models, decision making about land use allocation, selection of the most suitable site, evaluation of suitable options and finally reaching an integrated choice. Geographical location of Baneh in vicinity of Iran-Iraq border, and related natural hazards (geological, climatic, and etc.) and unnatural threats (political-security) have made passive defense and especially site selection for disaster management and support bases a crucial issue in this border area. Therefore, the present study seeks to select the best possible site for disaster management and support bases in Baneh.
Materials and Methods
Data have been collected through library research and questionnaires distributed among experts. Research criteria have also been classified into natural and unnatural (man-made) categories which include altitude, slope, slope direction, vegetation, lithology, distance from fault line, distance from river, climatic factor (precipitation), link roads, distance from city, distance from village, gas stations, health centers, relief agencies, military and police stations, open spaces and distance from the international Iran-Iraq border. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used to analyze the questionnaires and Expert Choice and Arc GIS software were used for data processing. The importance coefficient of the criteria were analyzed in Arc GIS software using AHP FUZZY model and the final results were presented in the form of a map.
Results indicate that unnatural (man-made) criteria received a higher weight as compared to natural criteria. Among these criteria, vicinity to health centers received the highest weight (0.151), while vegetation and slope direction received the lowest weight (0.016). Baneh generally lacks a proper situation for the construction of disaster management and support bases except for the cities in the middle of the county.
Due to the occurrence of various natural disasters and unnatural (human) threats in the border areas of the country including the county of Baneh which have affected the security of the region by their serious damages and high death tolls, it is necessary to focus on passive defense in site selection for disaster management and support bases in these areas. Results indicated that quick and easy access from bases to health centers and relief agencies, link roads, police stations and proximity to cities have the highest priority in site selection for disaster management and support bases. Other desirable passive defense criteria include distance from Iran-Iraq border and distance from fault lines. The final map shows unacceptable situation of the county in terms of disaster management bases. Except for cities located in the middle of this county such as Baneh, Buin, Armardeh and Kanisour, other cities lack a proper situation for construction of these bases. Such a situation results in higher vulnerability of these areas in probable disasters. Therefore, it is necessary to adopt short-term and practical programs along with important and effective criteria of passive defense to find the most optimal sites for disaster management and support bases in Baneh County.