Document Type : Research Paper


1 Ph.D in strategic management in the passive defense, National Defense University

2 Department of management and accounting, University of Tehran

3 Shahid Beheshti University


Extended Abstract
In recent years, protecting infrastructure, especially critical infrastructure, has become increasingly important because the economy of a region and the well-being of its inhabitants depend on the continuous and reliable operation of its infrastructure. These infrastructures are like arteries for survival of urbanism damaging .Some of infrastructures can have devastating effects on security, economy, and society at the regional and national levels. There are different systems and infrastructures in different countries, including Communication, electricity, gas and oil, banking and finance, transportation, water supply and government services infrastructure, which are critical infrastructures.
A review of various types of infrastructures shows that energy infrastructure is more important and plays a more significant role in comparing with other types of infrastructure.
Maintaining the security of this infrastructure against attacks and threats is one of the priorities of securing a country. One way to ensure security is to measure the spatial vulnerability of infrastructure. This article assesses the capacity of Yazd province against the vulnerability of energy infrastructure.
Materials & Methods
The information for this research has been extracted by documentary methods (including books, scientific articles, reports, etc.) as well as using the country's infrastructure database. Then, GIS layers of the energy infrastructure of Yazd province, including electric transmission network, electric plant, gas transmission lines, gas pressure regulation stations, oil transmission lines, oil products transmission lines, oil and gas storage tank and gas stations were examined.
The next step was ranking the importance of infrastructure elements with the DEMATEL model. Then, the infrastructure elements of Yazd province were prioritized with the analytic network process(ANP) model.
The next step was to prepare maps and GIS layers for each of the infrastructure elements ,by preparing them in Arc GIS and the priorities of the network analysis process model ;sothe final vulnerability map of the province was prepared.
Results& Discussion
After calculations of supermatrix coefficients, the results show the importance of these infrastructures in providing services to people and other infrastructures, as well astheattractiveness for each infrastructure element. Gas transmission network with the value of 0.1003, oilproducts transmission lines with the value of 0.0988, oil and gas tank with the value of 0.0995, have the most weight and importance, and gas stations with the value of 0.0485 has the least importance in comparing to other energy infrastructures in the Yazd province.
The results show that the central part of Yazd province is more vulnerable thanthe other part of province, because moreenergy infrastructuresareestablished inthe central part of Yazd province. Examination of the results on a smaller scale show thatthe vulnerability of energy network infrastructure inYazd,Meybod, Mehriz and Sadooghis high,butinBahabad, Khatam, and Abarkoohis low.
The results show that distribution of infrastructure in the Yazd province has not beenin a good model. The central part of the province is more vulnerable than the peripheralareas so that more than half of the infrastructure of the energy network (55%) is in very vulnerable zone and 18% of the infrastructure is in highly vulnerable zone;thus, observing the teachings of passive defense in the province deserves more importance.


1- استانداری یزد (1396): گزیدة شاخص‌ها و نماگرهای اقتصادی، اجتماعی و فرهنگی استان یزد. سازمان مدیریت و برنامه‌ریزی استان یزد.
2- برنافر، افرادی؛ مهدی، کاظم (1393): اولویت‌بندی مراکز حیاتی، حساس و مهم شهر بندر انزلی و ارائه راهکارهای دفاعی از دید پدافند غیرعامل، فصلنامه تحقیقات کاربردی علوم جغرافیایی، 14 (32): 179-161.
3- رضویان، علیان، رستمی؛ محمدتقی، مهدی، حسین، (1397): ارزیابی آسیب‌پذیری مکانی زیرساخت‌های استان یزد با رویکرد پدافند غیرعامل، فصلنامه آمایش سرزمین، 10 (1): 63-31.
4- سلطانی، موسوی، زالی؛ علی، سیدرضا، نادر، (1396): تحلیل و ارزیابی ریسک زیرساخت‌های منطقه‌ای از منظر پدافند غیرعامل، مطالعه موردی: منطقه صنعتی پارس یک جنوبی، فصلنامه برنامه‌ریزی منطقه‌ای، 7 (25): 96-83.
5- سیدین، امینی ورکی، رستمی،  یزدانی؛ افشار، سعید، حسین، محمدحسین، (1396): ارزیابی آسیب‌پذیری مکانی زیرساخت‌های استان اردبیل با رویکرد پدافند غیرعامل، فصلنامه آمایش سرزمین، 9 (2): 362-333.
6- صارمی، حسینی امینی؛ حمیدرضا، حسن، (1390): حفاظت از تأسیسات و تجهیزات شهری با استفاده بهینه از محیط طبیعی درون‌شهری با رویکرد پدافند غیرعامل (مطالعه موردی شهر بروجرد)، فصلنامه مطالعات مدیریت شهری، 3 (2): 67-52.
7- فرجی ملائی، زاهدی، حسینی امینی؛ امین، اسعد، حسن، (1394): آسیب‌پذیری شبکه انتقال انرژی از منظر آمایش دفاعی سرزمین با تأکید بر پدافند غیرعامل، فصلنامه جغرافیا، 13 (47): 210-197.
8- Abedi, A., Gaudard, L., & Romerio, F. (2018). Review of major approaches to analyze vulnerability in power system. Reliability engineering & System safety.
9- Apostolakis, G. E., & Lemon, D. M. (2005). A screening methodology for the identification and ranking of infrastructure vulnerabilities due to terrorism. Risk Analysis: An International Journal, 25(2), 361-376.
10- Brown, T., Beyeler, W., & Barton, D. (2004). Assessing infrastructure interdependencies: the challenge of risk analysis for complex adaptive systems. International Journal of Critical Infrastructures, 1(1), 108-117.
11- Clark, G. E., Moser, S. C., Ratick, S. J., Dow, K., Meyer, W. B., Emani, S., . . . Schwarz, H. E. (1998). Assessing the vulnerability of coastal communities to extreme storms: the case of Revere, MA., USA. Mitigation and adaptation strategies for global change, 3(1), 59-82.
12- Cutter, S. L. (1996). Vulnerability to environmental hazards. Progress in human geography, 20(4), 529-539.
13- Dolan, M., Walliman, N., Amouzad, S., & Ogden, R. (2017). Forensic Disaster Analysis of Flood Damage at Commercial and Industrial Firms. Flood Damage Survey and Assessment, 195-209.
14- Ghafory-Ashtiany, M. (2005). Earthquake risk management strategies: the Iranian experience. Retrieved from
15- Haimes, Y. Y., & Jiang, P. (2001). Leontief-based model of risk in complex interconnected infrastructures. Journal of Infrastructure Systems, 7(1), 1-12.
16- Huang, C.-N., Liou, J. J., & Chuang, Y.-C. (2014). A method for exploring the interdependencies and importance of critical infrastructures. Knowledge-Based Systems, 55, 66-74.
17- Johansson, J., & Hassel, H. (2008). A model for vulnerability analysis of interdependent infrastructure networks. Paper presented at the European Safety and Reliability Conference (ESREL)/17th Annual Meeting of the Society-for-Risk-Analysis-Europe (SRA-Europe).
18- Kundak, S. (2013). Cascading and unprecedented effects of disasters in urban system. In Intelligent Systems and Decision Making for Risk Analysis and Crisis Response. (pp. 743-748): CRC Press.
19- Little, M., Paul, K., Jordens, C. F., & Sayers, E.-J. (2000). Vulnerability in the narratives of patients and their carers: studies of colorectal cancer. Health:, 4(4), 495-510.
20- Little, R. G. (2002). Controlling cascading failure: Understanding the vulnerabilities of interconnected infrastructures. Journal of Urban Technology, 9(1), 109-123.
21- McDaniels, T., Chang, S., Peterson, K., Mikawoz, J., & Reed, D. (2007). Empirical framework for characterizing infrastructure failure interdependencies. Journal of Infrastructure Systems, 13(3), 175-184.
22- Min, H.-S. J., Beyeler, W., Brown, T., Son, Y. J., & Jones, A. T. (2007). Toward modeling and simulation of critical national infrastructure interdependencies. Iie Transactions, 39(1), 57-71.
23- Ouyang, M. (2014). Review on modeling and simulation of interdependent critical infrastructure systems. Reliability engineering & System safety, 121, 43-60.
24- Restrepo, C. E., Simonoff, J. S., & Zimmerman, R. (2006). Unraveling geographic interdependencies in electric power infrastructure. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 39th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS’06).
25- Zimmerman, R., & Restrepo, C. E. (2006). The next step: quantifying infrastructure interdependencies to improve security.