عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
During the last three decades, the process of producing topographic information has observed a development in data producing technology, from traditional and land mapping toward inactive methods of surface measurement and registration (like photogrammetry and remote sensing), and more recently toward active methods (like radar and Lidar). Lidar is a technique used to gather information from the surface which works by measuring distance with laser. Measurement in Lidar is based on this principle: with defined coordinates of the laser sending point, it is possible to measure coordinates of any point on the ground by measuring the oblique distance between pulse sending point and the ground surface and measuring the angle of wave sent between the pulse sending point and ground level. Images produced using Lidar data have a 472*697 pixel dimension. In fact, Lidar is a supplementary tool for collecting 3 dimensional information which aid spatial photogrammetry and remote sensing. The most important information received from this device is the distance between sensor and ground level which is measured by calculating the time period between pulse impact with earth surface and its return to the sensor. Moreover, the distance between ground surface and flying level of the airplane is repeatedly measured which determines ground surface and vegetation. Digital elevation model and digital surface model are products of Lidar. Features like plot parameters, average elevation of trees, surface of vegetation crown, elevation of the vegetation crown, diameter at breast height, single trees and jungle structure can be exploited by Lidar. The present article seeks to introduce Lidar and investigate its functions and applications.