عنوان مقاله [English]
Climate changesare considered to be the most important event of the Quaternary period largely reflected in the geomorphology and sedimentology of the period.Paleogeomorphology helps us to understand past climate changes and predict future changes. Depending on the Quaternary periods, closed pitlakes are called cold or rainy period lakes.Some of these lakes have completely dried up, others are temporary lakes that change into playas in the dry season, and others have been larger in the past. Researchers can identify pluvial lakes in today’s arid regions, because of the variety of factors and complex processes involved in their formation.Mighan Playa is located in the central and southwestern areas of Markazi province. It includes seasonal and saline Tozlogol Lake, and alluvial plains.
The present study used evidences of playa lake sediments as well as geomorphological evidences(lake terrace) to investigate the extent of MighanLake in Quaternary period. Data included datacollectedfrom library sources, statistical data, field surveys, sedimentary samples, sedimentary evidences, climatic data, remote sensing data received from Landsat TM satellite, ETM, and SRTM digital elevation models(SRTM 90 meters, and Dem10 meters).Initially, previous studies and environmental characteristics of the area were analyzed. Then, lake terracewas investigated to find geomorphic evidences of Pluvial Lakes in Quaternary period. To do so, probable ranges of the lake Terrace were determined using satellite imagery, geological maps, and elevation data of digital models. Probable area was divided into several distinct zones, and finally an area was identified in the western part of the lake and based on the elevation of this zone, the extent of the lake catchment in Quaternary period was determined. During fieldwork, samples were collected from the mountain slope line toward the Playa and lake shore, and then granulometrytests were performed on the 14 collected samples to determine the amount and type of sediments.Sedimentary and graphical analysis were also performed based on Folk classification. The percentage of clay and sand in the new samples collected from the region containing this mountainous area, lake coast and deeper parts of the lake were determined and attributed to past sediments. In this way, the information could be used to determine the extension of lake sedimentsin the past.Based on sedimentary logs (Arak Groundwater Studies Report, Central Water department of Markzani Province), sedimentology studies and percentages (clay-sand-gravel) of present-day samples collected from deep sections of Playa andelevated areas of sediment pits were interpolated in GIS environment and a map of the lake extension in the Mighan catchment areawas prepared.Subsequently based onpaleogeographic studies, paleontological climate of the area and sedimentation rate calculated by Pedrami in 1993, a map was produced to show the extent of sediments and the lake progressions and regressions in the past.
The stratigraphic and sedimentary evidences of logs in the margins of Mighanpit indicates changes in wet and dry periods. Type and size of sediments reflect the climatic conditions in each period, while high percentage of clay sediments reflects lake conditions. Paleontological sedimentological maps of the area show that the clay sediments were more concentrated in the southwestern, western and northwestern regions. Uplift of the Talkhab fault in the northeastern regionhas resulted in tectonic asymmetry of the pitand concentration of sediments in the western and southern parts. According to Krinsley, Bubeck, Pedrami and etc. Lake Mighan has been larger in the past. However, none of these researchers have determined the extent of lake water in the past. In this study, the extent of the lake was determined by reconstruction of clay sediments and using geomorphological evidencescollected from the lake shorelines (lake terrace) near Mighan village (Mashhad). Results indicated a height of 15 m in Quaternary period.
Sedimentary and geomorphologic evidences indicated that compared to the present playa level, the Lake fluvial was more permanent and vast in the past, but this extension differs in different directions and shows significant differences due to the tectonic location of the area.