عنوان مقاله [English]
Emergency shelters built based on multifunctional spaces are one of the main components of crisis management, which is carried out for various purposes by transferring people from hazardous or damaged areas to safe areas. Providing suitable spaces for the accommodation of refugees, establishing safe routes, warning and informing people about the possibility of danger, transfer and return planning and supporting are the main components of multi-purpose spaces. These components are defined according to the dimensions and scope of danger. Building multi-purpose land uses and paying special attention to them in urban development projects will help in optimization of crisis management processes, and create mechanisms to guarantee citizen security and achieve sustainable urban development. Paying attention to emergency shelters built based on multi-purpose land uses in military towns is of more importance and should be planned during peacetime. In fact, special attention should be paid to selecting and organizing multi-purpose spaces in these cities. Saravan, the center of Saravan city, is a town in Sistan and Baluchestan Province. It is a military town in southeastern Iran with a strategic importance from security and military point of view. Given its strategic location, the necessity of security and defense planning of the city based on the principles of passive defense is quite clear. Aspreviously mentioned,utilizing multi-purpose land uses as a strategy based on passive defensecan be considered an appropriate solution for defense planning of the city. Due to the spatial nature of data as well as multi-objective and multi-criteria nature of decision making, spatial analysis and site selection of multi-purpose land uses needs to be performed using a combination of geographic information system and multi-criteria decision making methods.
Materials & Methods
The presentapplied studyis performed using descriptive-analytical method. Data was collected from library and documentary sources and land use maps. Some information was also collected from the Statistical Center of Iran. ArcGISwas used to analyze collected data and produce relatedmaps including land use maps, mapsof sensitive urban centers such as military barracks, etc. According to the nature of the research and its field of study,geographical information system (GIS) was integrated with fuzzy multi-criteria decision making methods in the information analysis phase.
Results & Discussion
In order to analyze collected data, various criteria and indicators were first determined for selection of spaces and multi-purpose land uses based on studies conducted. Then, a special weight is allocated to each criterionusing verbally generated fuzzy methods andaccording to experts’ opinions and then SAW model was used to combine related GIS layers. Finally, the zoning map of Saravan city has been presented as an appropriate example for creating multi-purpose spaces and land uses. Indicators of site selection for multi-purpose land uses have been scored by experts to determine their effect and importance in spatial analysis of multi-purpose spaces in Saravan city. The opinions of 26 experts have been collected to determine this weight. The indicators were converted to GIS layers and presented after the integration of the final map.
Due to its strategic location and security-related issues, Saravan needs defense planning. Undoubtedly, shelters are needed to protect people againstthe enemy’s attacks in case of war. The necessity of paying attention to this issue has increased the importance of research on defense planning and passive defense in the field of urban planning. Passive defense in border towns focuses on defense planning and reduces the number of casualties. Shelters and multi-purpose spaces are also of this type. With the aim of spatial analysis and site selection for multi-purpose land uses, and in order toutilize existing land uses for urban defense planning, the present study has identified multi-purpose land uses in Saravan. Using geographic information system and multi-criteria decision making methods, these land uses have been located and appropriate situations have been identified for creation of multi-purpose spaces. Results indicated that usingexperts’ views, along with geographic information system, and multi-criteria decision making methods could be an appropriate way fordefense planning and site selecting for multi-purpose land uses.
According to the final map which is produced using SAW model for locating and planning multi-purpose land uses, different appropriate areas exist for the location of multi-purpose uses. These areas are specified in the final map of Saravan. According to this map, northeastern areas of the city is considered to be suitablebased on all criteria. It can be concluded that the areas obtained fromGIS are scattered throughout the city and responsible organizations can use the final map for site selection. The largest area with the most suitable condition is located in the northeasternregion, and the southeastern, southern and southwestern regions seem appropriate. A vast region of the city (beginning in the northwestern region and reaching southeastern region) is in poor condition in terms of the criteria examined. Due to the 10 levels of classification used in the final map, the map shows different conditions even in this region, and more suitable situationscan be selected for multi-purpose land usescompared to other regions.