عنوان مقاله [English]
One of the major environmental issues and requirementsof the contemporary worldis the acquisition of knowledge and related technologies. Urban Heat Island (UHI) refers to the occurrence of higher surface temperature in urban areas compared to the surrounding rural areas due to high urbanization. Urban Heat Island (UHI) is an important ecological effect of rapid urbanization. While the temporal and spatial importance of UHIs and their causes have been discussed in previous studies, precise identification of the morphology and shape of the earth and its relation with UHIs have not been studied. Urban heat islands occur primarily due tourban developmentand changes in land surface. This has created unfavorable conditions and many problemsfor citizens. Vegetation cover can reduce the effect of heat island. Satellite data can be used to determine the distribution of urban heat islands, but new methods of measurement are still needed to get better results.Ground data can also help in validation of remote sensing analysis. The present study has investigatedurban heat islands occurring in the city of Tehran and its suburbs due to urbanization and traffic.
The present study has been carried out in Tehran, the capital city of Iran, located in the northern part of the country,on the southern slopes of the Alborz Mountain Range, along 51⁰ to 51⁰ 40′ easternlongitudeand 35 ⁰ 30′ to 35 ⁰ 51′ northernlatitude. According to the latest population and housing census in 2011 performed by the Statistical Center of Iran, Tehran has a population of 8,154,051 and still is the most densely populated city of Iran with a clear demographic difference with other cities of the country. The study area borders with mountainous areas of the north and desertsof the south, thus the southern and northern regions of the study area have different climates. The northern regions have cold and dry climates, while the southern parts suffer from hot and dry climates. The elevation varies from 900 to 1800 meters. This huge difference inelevationis due to the vast area of the city. In Tehran metropolis, the average annual temperature varies between 18 and 15 ° C, and different parts of the city have an average temperature difference of 3 ° Cdue to the elevation difference in the city. Average monthly relative humidity including minimum and maximum relative humidity recorded at Mehrabad station shows that in in the morningof July to January, humidity changes from at least 38% to a maximum of 79%. Midnight relative humidity varies from 15% to 18% in June to 47% in February. The annual rainfall in Tehran is mainly influenced by the difference in elevation and varies between 422 mm in the north and at least 145 mm in the southeast. The number of rainy days also follows the same pattern and varies between 89 days in the north and 33 days in the south. Also in this urban area, 205 to 213 days of each yearhave a clear sky with some cloud. In this exploratory study, Landsat 8 satellite images for Tehran were obtained and processed (geometrical, radiometric and atmospheric corrections). The Operation Land Imager(OLI)with its three new bands: a deep blue band for coastal / aerosols studies (band 1), a short-wave infrared band for cirrus cloudsdetection and Band Quality Assessment (Band 9), and an Infrared Thermal Sensor (TIRS) which offers two high resolution thermal bands (approx. 30 m) (band 10, 11) were used. In addition, two of the valuable thermal bands at 10.9 µm and 12.0 µm have Landsat 8 images. In this study, spectral reflections of all terrestrial members of spectral phenomena were obtained based on the total wavelengths of Landsat 8 (wavelengths of 430-2290 nm). For UHI estimation,surface temperature can be obtained from the two thermal bandsand improved using split-window methods.The relation between thermal islands can be calculated using air pollution ground data. The present study tries to select suitable indices such as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). The vegetation index (NDVI) of land surface was calculated using spectral bands.
The LST map was produced using Landsat OLI 8 satellite images. Temperature in this map was obtained using standard deviation from the classified values,and areas affected by the UHI were identified subsequently. According to the LST map, the surface temperature varies between 21.5 ° C and 57.9 ° C. On the day of imaging, the lowest average temperature of water was 35 ° C and the maximum average temperature of bare lands was 48 ° C in the study area.
It is recommended to use spectral reflectance measurements such as field spectroradiometer in natural conditions to evaluate the spectral reflectance accuracy. At a later stage, spectral reflection of different phenomena can be used to classify satellite images and examine their relationship with the urban heat islands