عنوان مقاله [English]
Information is the main ingredient of scientific research and an efficacious research depends on information processing. Naturally, such a tool and environment with such dimensions and features creates fundamental changes in the realm of scientific researches.
Geographic information system (GIS) provides an appropriate context for the simulation of any situation and space. It also creates the necessary 3d environment for the constant investigation and evaluation of urban plans with its analytic ability in modelling. Except for data used in the analysis of environmental and systematic information, other geographic information will be integrated into the selected site model according to the subject. As an instance, information necessary for urban management includes:
Digital aerial imagery and satellite pictures, precipitation data and isohyet points, information about humid and arid lands, soil and its resistance, map of radiologic pollution, water/soil/weather pollution, digital earth model (DEM), vegetation and typology, topographic information and slope, population information and density, access network information, digitalized information of infrastructure and facilities, the situation of watersheds and aquifers in the area (identifying streams and rivers), ground and underground waters, geologic and geotectonic situation of the area, information related to the known faults in the area.
Other information like water table information, depth of underground water, geography of surface, etc. are evaluated according to the subject and used in urban planning, locating, designing and constructing.
After collecting the mentioned information, saving and organizing are performed in GIS environment and data base platform.
In geographic information systems, spatial data and descriptive information are stored as a coverage for vector and raster data. Features of each information model should be considered before being integrated in the selected site system.
The structure of geographic information base is constructed in 2 different ways:
a) Stratification of information, spatial model of data digitalization, overlapping
b) Objective method based on spatial position of the phenomena, smartification of the phenomena
In the process of evolution, automation reached from digital production of graphical elements and the ability to integrate, aggregate, regulate, correct, distinguish and synchronize to create spatial and geographic data base and smartification of the graphic components. So that in addition to the ability of producing digital information, it has the necessary conditions for selection and logical decision making.