عنوان مقاله [English]
Movements of sand and small particles (dust) because of wind occur in many different environments, but the phenomenon is much more powerful in arid areas and cover larger areas. The phenomenon is one of the most important issues arid areas face. In order to preserve buildings, agricultural lands, pipe lines and transport networks from sandstorms and from being buried in dust and sand, it seems necessary to create and develop monitoring tools and confront this natural phenomenon. Urban areas in arid lands can block movements of sand and dust suspended in wind. In arid lands and deserts population is centralized around ground water resources. Cultivated lands are limited which results in more pressure on the earth due to centralization and population being attracted to settlements. Thus, desert ecosystem near urban areas faces more damages, plant life faces destruction and soil structure will be damaged. Movements of sand and small soil particles increase and wind-related problems and issues display in a larger scale. In this regard, factors creating problem of sand and small soil particles depend on desertification factors which have gained attentions in recent years (A. J. Pilor and Honey, 1976; United Nation, 1977).
To decrease disagreeable results of sand and small soil particles movements, we need to gain enough information regarding the natural characteristics of such movements and identify factors accelerating this process, while trying to decrease the quality and quantity of these natural events. Therefore, the present article aims to identify natural characteristics, intensity, dispersion and movement of sand and small soil particles in arid areas and problems caused by wind processes. Then, the study seeks to create a new model to identify and observe sand and small soil particles movements. Furthermore, it tries to find a way to evaluate sand and small soil particles movements and dangers cause by wind erosion, and also a way to measure these movements precisely and bring them under control.