عنوان مقاله [English]
In the theory of functionalism, society is considered an organized system, and as each system consists of distinct components and elements, society is also formed as a system of separate groups and organizations. These components are combined in a special way and together constitute a whole. The survival of a system requires constructive interaction of its components and elements and that the system be integrated in a framework of environmental factors such as geography, values and social systems. This interaction and cooperation conforms to a series of principles and rules will lead to maintaining the balance and survival of the system, and even if parts and components of it are subject to change, this cooperation will contribute to maintaining overall stability. In this theory, each component of the system has a specific function and its survival depends on its interaction with the rest of the system's components and the degree to which it functions. A component can be operating in a period of time and be without any functions in another period, which, if not functioning, is deleted from the system. In this theory, the survival and continuance of all traditions, social relationships and institutions depend on the work or task they occupy in the social system as a whole, and continue to exist in their own way as long as they have a useful function. The theory of functionalism considers any kind of partial change and transformation due to the functional need of society; in other words, in this theory, society acts in a way so as to be responsive to its functional needs, and mechanisms are in a way that preserve unity , coherence, balance and survival. In this paper, while reviewing the functionalism school in geography, comparative parallel of this school with other geographical schools are carried out. (Azadeh Amaraki, 1994; Adibi, Ansari, 2004).