تأثیر کشاورزى بر اقلیم در دوره هولوسن (ترجمه)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 عضو هیأت علمى گروه جغرافیا - دانشگاه اصفهان (مترجم)

2 کارشناس ارشد رشته جغرافیا - دانشگاه اصفهان (مترجم)

چکیده

این مقاله تغییرات مربوط به ردگیرى واکنش گاز و اقلیم را در دوره هولوسن (تقریبا 10000 سال پیش) با توجه به چهار دوره یخچالى گذشته خلاصه مى‏ نماید. دوره صنعتى که معمولاً از قرن 18 شروع مى‏ شود، باتوجه به افزایش گازهاى گلخانه ‏اى اتمسفر در نتیجه سوخت‏ هاى فسیلى و تغییرات کاربرى زمین شناخته شده است و اینها با افزایش میانگین دماى سطح زمین در دهه پایانى قرن بیست مرتبط مى‏ باشد. به هر حال تحلیل‏ هاى انجام گرفته به وسیله رادیمان (Ruddiman) که دوره هولوسن و دوره جامعه شهرى را مورد توجه قرار مى‏ دهد، تغییرات موجود در گازهاى گلخانه ‏اى اتمسفر به صورت بى‏ سابقه ‏اى با سوابق یخچالى در چهارصدهزار سال پیش مقایسه شده است. در طول این دوره دى‏ اکسید کربن (Co2) و متان (CH4) افزایش یافته است و این افزایش احتمالاً ناشى از شروع فعالیت‏ هاى کشاورزى و پاکسازى زمین در اوراسیا مى‏ باشد. این موارد و دیگر تغییرات کاربرى زمین ناشى از فعالیت ‏هاى کشاورزى و روستایى ممکن است موجب تغییرات ضعیف اقلیمى و مانع از سرد شدن زمین شده باشد و یا شاید اینها ناشى از نیروهاى طبیعى باشد. اگر چه شواهد آتیه نظریه رادیمان را پشتیبانى مى‏ کند ولى فعالیت ‏هاى جنگل‏ کارى و کشاورزى در طول دوره جامعه شهرى ممکن است که تأثیرى را برروى اقلیم براى حداقل هشت هزار سال پیش اعمال کرده باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Agriculture on the Climate in the Holocene (Translation)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Masoud Mo'ayyeri 1
  • Ali Jowzi Khomslouei 2
1 Member of Faculty, Department of Geography, University of Isfahan (Translator)
2 Master of Geography, University of Isfahan (Translator)
چکیده [English]

This paper summarizes the changes in gas reaction and climate tracing in the Holocene period (about 10,000 years ago), with respect to the four glacier periods of the past. The industrial era, which usually begins in the 18th century, is associated with increase in atmospheric greenhouse gases as a result of fossil fuels and land use changes, and these are linked to an increase in the average temperature of the earth's surface during the last decade of the twenty-first century. However, the analyses carried out by Ruddiman, which take the Holocene era and the urban community into consideration, have unprecedentedly compared changes in atmospheric greenhouse gases with that of glacial records of the past four hundred thousand years. During this period, carbon dioxide (CO 2) and methane (CH4) have increased, and this increase is probably due to the beginning of agricultural activities and land clearing in Eurasia. These and other changes in land use resulting from agricultural and rural activities may cause poor climatic change and prevent land’s temperature fall, or maybe due to natural forces. Although the early evidence supports the theory of Ruddiman, forestry and agricultural activities during the period of urban community may have exerted an impact on the climate equal to at least eight thousand years of the past.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Climate
  • Climate change
  • Agriculture
  • greenhouse gases in the atmosphere
  • holocene
  • industrial age
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