عنوان مقاله [English]
Management is the art of decision making. In urban environments, which are basically complex assortments of a wide range of components and interactions, managers should display their decision-making ability on a high level. The importance of this matter will be intensified when we know that urban environments are the most vulnerable environments, particularly to natural disasters. In addition, the results of such hazards are all-encompassing and lead to human casualties and various economic and social losses. One of the most recognized threats to urban environments is the earthquake.
The frequency of earthquakes and their results, especially in areas susceptible to earthquakes, has caused urban managers feel pressed by society and policy makers to adopt effective strategies to address this issue.
These strategies can be observed in the area of policy-making and strategy-determination to create a good level of coordination and subsequently integration of resources for addressing the management of earthquake crisis, as well as in the use of various research and technologies concerning recognition of different aspects of the earthquake phenomenon and its effects. In this context, urban crisis management can be defined as an integrated combination of strategies, policies, research, and technology. In this regard, international efforts to develop macro strategies and to encourage communities to follow them in order to provide an adequate level of security and prosperity of urban life indicate the universal importance of urban crisis management, and in particular earthquakes. Since Iran, and especially Tehran, are always subject to earthquakes, this paper examines the activities carried out in connection with natural hazards of earthquakes, especially in urban environments around the world and Iran.