عنوان مقاله [English]
The expansion of cities and urbanization and the gradual increase of the number of large cities in the world especially in developing countries including Iran on the one hand, and the growth of cities, concentration and accumulation of population, and increase of environmental and economic load on them on the other, have led, in addition to greater attention paid to cities, to the acceptance of numerous roles and functions by them.
One of the issues that most of the big cities in the world are concerned with is natural disasters. The unpredictability inherent in most of natural disasters and the need for rapid and correct decision-making and implementation of the operation in their face have created the theoretical and fundamental foundations of a science named Crisis Management. This science refers to a set of activities that take place before, during and after the crisis to reduce the effects of these incidents and decrease vulnerability. This has a special relationship with geography and urban planning and management. By using the principles and regulations of urban planning and by clarifying the concepts of this science such as the form, texture and structure of cities, urban land use, communication networks, urban infrastructure, etc., we can greatly reduce the effects and consequences of natural disasters.
The geographic extent of Iran is one of the most vulnerable parts of the Planet in terms of the probability of occurrence of these events, especially earthquakes. Every year the occurrence of these incidents causes a great deal of life and financial losses, and urban areas have always had a bitter experience of the occurrence of such disasters. It seems therefore to be necessary to carry out specific planning for the safety of urban spaces. Cities are severely damaged by such cases due to population concentration and economic investment in them. Since the beginning of their formation, they have chosen a particular form and structure for their growth and have expanded over time. The science of urbanization can reduce the effects of such disasters by explaining its principles and concepts and by relying on geographical data, and crisis management can use these data to implement the necessary management principles to reduce the vulnerability of cities to these events.