عنوان مقاله [English]
In the years after the end of World War II, the transfer of human resources and the resulting developments led to the emergence of a phenomenon called "Developement", which become a slogan especially for the Third World and in particular the newly independent states.
Between the 1950s and 1960s, development was often considered as an economic phenomenon. The basis of this mentality was the theory of economic growth. This theory considers the growth of a country in terms of economic development, and believes that with the increase of GNP, the conditions for the equitable distribution of development arise, and the growth process develops in the form of “Trickle-down” and spreads to deprived areas. The theory of economic growth attributed the increase of production capacity to the concentration of capital and, in particular, locating production centers in the vicinity of large cities. According to this theory, most developing countries began to concentrate on industrialization and capital investment to raise their production capacity. Having more products and raising revenues were considered as the highest factors in development. Many developing countries considered economic development to be possible only through industrialization, especially an industry whose raw materials were imported from abroad.
In Iran, the development was introduced in its new meaning after the Constitutional Revolution. The entry or, in other words, the accelerated and rapid influx of capitalism into our country was a major reflection of the the statesmen’s (especially during the ascendancy of first and second Pahlavi monarchs) imitation of the capitalist system of the West in order to develop the country. The government tried to implement the ideas of modernism in all socioeconomic and political dimensions in the country, and, without paying attention to the long history and infrastructures that caused the economic and social changes of European countries, they concentrated all their attention and determination on this matter through hasty decisions and actions. In the same way, after 1921 certain points in the country were selected and all the envisaged scenarios of development and changes were implemented in these areas. This means that industries, factories, military garrisons, government departments and organizations, new social institutions, universities and higher education centers, etc. were established in these selected centers, which, of course, were connected together by roads and railway lines. The existence of such a development led to the intense concentration of all facilities and power in one or a few regions and imbalance in the regions of the country, so that the other areas to were marginalized.