عنوان مقاله [English]
Innovations in technology take place when new methods replace current techniques. The initial stage is usually limited to something that can be called "modernization." It may take some time before the next step is implemented and results of new applications are evaluated and understood.
It may take a long time before organizational structure and procedures are adapted to an innovation, and even more time may be needed before theoretical and cognitive consequences are realized. After the new concepts are combined with methods following practical applications, real success will be achieved. Only then is the implementation of modern technology at its full potential and its practice optimized.
The MARC Project of the Library of Congress is designed for exchange of bibliographic information in a form readable by computer. The purpose of the system’s design is to reduce the costs of distributing the card catalogs amongst the library community. The system was later used for advanced work such as information retrieval system and listing.