عنوان مقاله [English]
Rockfall is one of the important types of massive movements of mountain side materials. This natural phenomenon is considered a natural disaster if it affects residential settlements including urban and rural, communication networks and other human infrastructure, causing enormous casualties and financial losses. In addition to mountainous towns and villages that are exposed to this phenomenon, in recent years, beautiful natural landscapes and pleasant weather of mountainous regions have attracted great numbers of people. As a result, summer and snow cities gradually assume a generalized form. Apparently, there is no danger to these areas, while the evolution and formation of these areas is related to massive movements of the materials arising from the pre-glacial morphogenesis system, which occurs alternately after relatively long periods of time, and seriously threatens buildings, roads and other facilities as natural hazards.