عنوان مقاله [English]
Geographic Information System (GIS) was introduced for the first time in Canada in the early 1960s, and since then its users increased day by day until it became global in the 1980s.
Large institutions, and even small companies whose number of staff do not exceed the number of the two hands’ fingers, have established national or global geographic information systems to be able to provide valuable information and data to public and private departments and companies. In this way, they prevent unnecessary repeat of work during collecting data and digitizing maps.
Today, most of the papers in this science reflect the results of field experiments and pay less attention to the principles of this science. As a result, it's often observed that experts are very capable at the advanced stage of science but weak at its fundamental stage.
Unlike most data types that are commonly used in new information systems, geographic data is of particular complexity, since these data should include information about location, probable topological connections and recorded characteristics of certain matters. The topological and spatial aspects of the GIS used in design and mapping, and the means of distinguishing between these systems and a new system are among the information that have applications in various fields such as banking, secondary research, booking of airplane tickets and recording medical cases.
Geographic data are connected to certain points of the earth’s surface based on standard coordinate systems. If the subject under study relates only to a limited area, the coordinate system can be purely local, otherwise it may be a visual network at the national or international level, such as the Mercator Coordinate System, which is confirmed by everyone in the field. Geographic data are often recognized as a geographical example of "topics" and phenomena. All geographic studies use phenomenological concepts such as city, river, flood plain, limits of classes of plant species and soil continuity as the main components of the analysis and synthesis of complex information.