عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
Although our universe and all objects in it are three-dimensional (3D), nonetheless commercial GIS usually reduces spatial data (spatial data) to two-dimensional (2D) due to different data considerations. If the entire range of the known applications of 2D GIS is to become available in a 3D GIS, certain appropriate topological and geometric information structures become necessary.
The author of this article reviews the current problems of access to 3D GIS and provides answers that result from his research efforts.