عنوان مقاله [English]
Among various complex modeling techniques that can be used in research, there is great difference between techniques considering “what is there?” or “what can be there?” and those dealing with “what should be there?”. This difference can be expressed through descriptive and prescriptive models.
Descriptive modeling techniques aim at clarification and description, and it is possible to make distinctions between techniques which analyze cartographic data and those which combine such data. Techniques aiming at analyzing cartographic data decompose data into conceptually clearer levels, while techniques combining data attempt to combine them for utilization in a particular texture.
Analytical techniques of cartographic data usually deal with characteristics concerning position or form, and in the hill model (example mentioned in the main text) both can be observed. In Travel Time Layer in fig.6, the positional characteristic of each point relative to a hill is determined in terms of minutes.