عنوان مقاله [English]
Writing an article about convergence and divergence in urban development of Europe and North America simultaneous with overturn of material importance of political systems is a task of great importance. Forty five years of development after World Wars is over; Germany’s division is abolished, and it seems that establishment of “European Common House” is facilitated. Cynical fears about the growth of European unity which was prevalent during 1980’s was developed through Spengler’s views concerning decline of the West, and has now become forgotten.
On the eve of the beginning of the third millennium, all the world’s affairs takes place in Europe. Creation of “united European nations” is not merely an illusion any more.
These facts are important for the future of urban developments in a number of ways:
Gigantic projects such as tunnel construction are being carried out; new long tunnels under the Alps seem possible.
The network system will grow through roads with eastern and southern branches. Vast investment in financial network of railways will lead to efficiency of the EC.Wide network.
Dense urban areas which so far have been receiving large shares of the fourth (economic) part in research and development establishments will gain the most benefit from growth of equipment.
The upper levels of national urban systems will be placed to a great degree under the title of international power of the European common market. There will be competitions among these sections according to new local benefits. In this way, a type of “European Elite” status will emerge among the large metropolitan areas.
Regional policies in European communities will not only change the economic map of Europe, but create a new classification of “regional centers” which will be recognized only by the capitals of lands annexed to the Federal Republic of Germany.
There is no way to determine at this moment whether expansion of institutions for social leveling and advanced spatial distributions in prosperous countries will remain undisturbed, or to what level the social expansion will be separated from economic policies, or to what extent will the expansions impose policies beyond national level. Housing policy after World Wars is a good example of the latter case.
This question is connected with convergence and divergence in urban development.