عنوان مقاله [English]
Our country, due to its special geographic position, especially the location of its north and northeastern borders which have been gates for entrance of nomadic tribes, has been affected by the phenomenon of nomadism since early times. Consequently, it is considered as one of the most important areas of nomadism in the world. In general, Iran has a history of nomadism of about eight thousand years, a fact confirmed by relics found in the northwest of Iran.
Therefore, Iran is a land familiar with nomadism in which nomads, despite their decreasing trend of population, have been recognized as the third population group of society along with rural and urban settlers since long ago.
Unfortunately, this small and scattered population faces problems concerning its three fundamental bases, namely human, livestock and rangelands all over the country.
In this paper, using theories, experiences and statistical information, it has been tried to examine the necessity of transforming the manner of nomadism in Iran into transhumance in order to help nomads enjoy existing infrastructures and facilities, an aim in line with the policy of homogeneous economic, social and cultural development of the country.
In this regard, first a brief overview of nomadic life characteristics and difficulties has been presented, and then transhumance and its role in different aspects of the life of nomads have been studied.