عنوان مقاله [English]
One of the important points in displaying the ground features on map is tone and tonal relationship. What sets up the provider-user connection in maps and conveys the message is a set
of signs, symbols and colors.
The signs and symbols of each map can be divided into real and virtual symbols, each of which
contains point (spatial), linear and surface marks.
• Real point signs include cases such as geodetic and levelling points, lighthouse, springs, mosques, stations, etc.; linear such as road networks, railways, watercourses, rivers and power lines; surface signs like forests , ranges, farms, salt pans (Kavir), parks and many more;
• Virtual signs are also in the form of points, lines, and surfaces; virtual point signs such as magnetic north; linear sings such as international political, provincial, county, district and rural boundaries, aerial paths of aircrafts and ships’ sailing courses; surface signs including protected areas, climatic divisions, etc.