عنوان مقاله [English]
So far, there have been a lot of definitions of GIS, all of which trying to say what GIS is. However, today's modern systems of GIS share two forms of vector and network data. Users' demand for vector/network data of image layers including digital orthophoto has increased dramatically. There have been vast discussions In connection with the application of GIS, but what is to be more emphasized is the practical context and objective realization of the use of geographic information systems. In this issue, examples of defensive use, disaster management, astronomical research, and optimal use of natural talents and facilities are addressed, hoping that in the future successful cases of GIS activities will be presented.