عنوان مقاله [English]
Digital elevation model (DEM) is the raster representation of the ground surface so that the information of each cell on the image has a value equal to the altitude from the sea level corresponding to the same spot on the ground. DEM is an appropriate tool for the generation of topographic maps and contour lines, access to the information of surface roughness, three dimensional vision, etc. (Jacobsen, 2004). The accuracy of the digital elevation model is effective on the accuracy of the information from which it is obtained. This is why researchers are always looking for a way to increase the accuracy of digital elevation models. Among the information resources that are used to generate this model are ground mapping, aerial photography, satellite images, radar data, and Lidar. Some of these data generate the digital elevation model with little accuracy due to the insufficiency of the elevation information. The aim of this paper is to investigate the accuracy of DEMs derived from ASTER satellite images and SRTM data with 30 and 90-meter pixel dimensions and the digital elevation model derived from the topographic 1:25000-scale maps with Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) in different landforms including plains, hills and mountains.
Materials and Methods
The study area is a part of the project of dam and water transfer system from the Azad dam to the plain of Ghorve-Dehgolan (with the goal of transferring water from the catchments of Sirvan River into the country) in the province of Kurdistan and the city of Sanandaj. In this study, the Real-Time kinematic method (RTK) was used to locate the points. In this method, assuming that the coordinates of the reference station are known and comparing it with the location obtained from the GPS receiver, a correction value is obtained that is applied to the coordinates obtained for the Rover Station, which is known as the relative or differential method. In this method, the corrections are calculated asreal-time during the observations and are considered in the determination of the Rover location.The Leica GS10 GNSS receivers were used in this study. First, two reference stations were determined using the Fast Static method and then, the Real-Time kinematic (RTK) method was used. In order to investigate the extent of the data compliance and relation, the Pearson linear correlation analysis was used and the accuracy assessment of the extracted digital elevation models was carried out using the RMSE, mean error and standard deviation.
Results & Discussion
The statistical parameters such as root mean square error (RMSE), bias (µ) and standard deviation () were used to assess the accuracy of each one of the investigated digital models. By comparing different sources that create DEMs, it can be seen that the minimum error is first related to the digital elevation model extracted from the contour lines of the 1:25000-scale map (27/6 = RMSE) and then to the ASTER digital elevation model with the pixel size of 30 meters (RMSE=7.43). The 30-meter pixel size DEM has always led to better results than the 90- meter pixel size DEM. Based on the mean error standard, the minimum bias is related to ASTER30 m (bias of 2 m) and then to the 1: 25,000 DEM (2.17). The maximum bias was related to 30-and 90-meter models extracted from the SRTM data. The results of standard deviation error were in compliance with the RMSE results, which confirmed the superiority of 1:25000-scale map and ASTER30 m DEMs. The results showed that the determination coefficient of relationship between the ground data and digital elevation models is between 97 and 99. The maximum compliance is related to the digital elevation model extracted from the 1:25000-scale topographic data and the ASTER30 m DEM, while the minimum compliance is related to the SRTM90 m data. In general, the compliance of the digital elevation models with the ground data decreased as the field's conditions became more difficult, i.e. from plain to mountain.
The results of DEMs accuracy assessment showed that the minimum error was primarily related to 1:25000 contour lines DEM (RMSE=6.27) and then, to the ASTER30 m DEM (RMSE=7.43). The pixel size of 30 meters has always been better than the pixels size of 90 meters. Based on the mean error standard, the minimum bias is related to the ASTER 30 m (bias of 2 m) and then, to the 1: 25,000 DEM (2.17). The maximum bias was related to 30-and 90-meter models extracted from the SRTM data. The results of the standard deviation error were consistent with the RMSE results, which confirmed the superiority of the digital elevation models extracted from the topographic 1:25000-scale maps and the ASTER30 m DEM.