عنوان مقاله [English]
Foehn is thedecending of hot and dry air that occurs under certain conditions in the lee of a mountain range.In an adiabatic process, the humid air rises toward mountain peaks on the windward hillside. With sufficient humidity, it is saturated and thus, forms clouds or precipitation. In this way, it loses moisture, and passing over the lee of maintain, descends and heat upin an adiabatic process. Thus, the air in the lee side gets warmer and drier than the air in the windward hillside. Moving upward toward the mountain peak, the air loses temperature. At the mountain peak, the saturated air hasreached dew point temperature, and begins to rain to discharge its moisture. This dry air descends, and cross the leeward hillside with increasing velocity, and at the base of the mountain, its temperature is higher than the initial air temperature (Haji Mohammadi, 1396).
In order to extract the frequency of days with foehn windsin the present study, daily temperature, relative and hourly humidity and wind speed were prepared for a 10-year statistical period (2015-2006) and then heat wave index was used to extract the number of days with foehn winds. To investigate the effect of foehn on thermal stress of plants using Landsat 8 OLI images, factors affecting thermal stress inplants,such as albedo, short wavelength radiations reaching the Earth surface, long wavelengthradiations emitted from the Earth surface, long wavelength radiations entering the earth surface, net radiation flux and soil heat flux were analyzed. ENVI 5.3 and Arc GIS 10.1 wereused to perform calculations and produce the aforementioned maps.
The present study was conducted to investigate thefoehn phenomenon in the west Alborz Mountains and its effect on the amount of thermal stress in the vegetation cover.First, the frequency of foehn wind occurrence in the statistical period of 2006 to 2015, in stations under study was extracted using wind direction, baldiindex (heat wave index) and increasing temperature and decreasing relative humidity compared to the previous day. In other words, days with temperature higher than 0 degree Celsius were considered as a heat wave. Based on wind direction, temperature increase and relative humidity decrease compared to the previous day (which in some cases is twice or even more), days are associated with foehn wind. In order to investigate the effect of foehn on thermal stressin plants, a sample of images with better atmospheric conditions (lacking clouds) collected by Landsat 8 OLI sensor on September 24, 2015 –in which foehn phenomenon had taken place-was received from the website of US Geological Survey (Earth Explorer)in the present study.The study area (West Alborz Mountains) was selected and cut out ofthese images and radiometric corrections were performed on the resulting images using ENVI 5.3 software. Afterwards, parameters like atmospheric thickness (atmospheric conductivity), Top of AtmosphereAlbedo, Earth’s surface albedo, Earthdistancefrom the Sun, solar altitude, Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), leaf area index (LAI), Fracture value, brightness temperature, ground surface temperature were determined and net radiation flux reaching vegetation cover and soil heat fluxwere calculated using these parameters. The output maps were produced in ARCGIS 10.1 environment.
According to the study sample (September 4, 2015), results indicated that areas with dense forest cover (eastern hillsides of the Alborz Range) receives the highest values of net radiation.The effect of foehn infiltration on these hillsides has increased the amount of radiation received up to 600 or 700 W / m 2. In contrast, the net radiation received on the downstream of thewindwardhillsides (western hillsides) is about 75 and at higher altitudes 150 W / m 2less than areas under the influence offoehn.Due to lower vegetation densityand lower heat transfer,soil heat flux in the western hillsides is much higher than the eastern hillsides.Most of windward hillsides has a heat flux of between 80 and 120 W / m2, while in leeward hillsides,sunlight is absorbed by the canopy and the soil heat flux is between 20 and 40 W / m2.Thus, most of solar radiation is used to raise the temperature around the vegetation crown, provide the necessary conditions for higher evaporation from the vegetation and create thermal stressin the vegetation organs. Therefore, descending of air mass on trees and plants causes severe evapotranspiration.This will lead to rapid drying of the leaves, which will cause thermal stress in the plant’s organs and intensify the likelihood of forest fires.