عنوان مقاله [English]
Nowadays, engineering structures face many threats. Natural and human activities can result in deformation and displacement of dams, bridges, and towers. As a result, any crack in the body of these structures is important and may have dangerous consequences. To prevent catastrophes, the behavior of these structures should be monitored permanently during the construction phase and after opening.Nowadays,thebehavior of engineering structures such as dams, power plants, and towers is considered to be especially important. Three different methods are usually used to measure such behavior: classical, satellite and precise instruments.
Materials and methods
Modern equipment is considered to be a crucial factor in controllingpossible changes and preventing human errors. Therefore, different sensors are installed in the structure to measure tensile and shear flexibility during the construction phase. Moreover, data received from these sensors is analyzed permanently during the service life to ensure sustainability of the structure. These tools make internal analysis of these structures possible. Analyzing the behavior of engineering structures is considered to be one of the most important tasks in the field of geodesy. Inaccurate analysis of displacements can have deadly effects. Various methods are used to measure such displacements, which are divided into two categories: robust and non-robust methods based upon the results of the epoch adjustment. To find deformations, a geodetic network should be defined in the first step. If two epochs are not measured in the same datum, the results will not be reliable. Displacement can be measured in two ways: Absolute and Relative. In the absolute method, some points are considered to be stable, while in the relative network, all points are considered to be unstable, and the problem is solved based upon this hypothesis. The method of relative network is used in the present study. Regarding network geometry, displacement analysis is performed using two methods:single and combinatorial. Moreover, displacement analysis is divided into two categories of robust and non-robust methods. Iterative Weighted Similarity Transformation (IWST)and Minimum L1 norm are among robust methods which calculate the matrix of displacement by minimizing the first and second norm. Global Congruency Test (GCT) is a non-robust statistical method used to determine unstable points in geodetic networks. Robust and GCT are among classical methods used to discover unstable points in geodetic networks, while Simultaneous Adjustment of Two Epoch (SATE(is a new method used to achieve this purpose. Combinatorial methods are also considered to be a suitable alternative method used for detecting unstable points in a geodetic network. In our previous study, “evaluation of single-point methods used fordetecting displacement in classical geodetic networks”, single-point methods of detecting unstable points were investigated and the SATE method was selected as the optimal method. Unlike single-point methods, these methods examine all points of the geodetic network simultaneously to discover unstable points.
Results and discussion
The strong dependence of these methods on the network geometry makes discovery of all unstable points impossible. Combinatorial methods are considered to be a suitable alternative method used to detect all unstable points in the geodetic network. These methods does not have a strong dependence on scale and the network geometry. Multiple Sub Sample and M-split methods are classified in this category. These methods can detect unstable points efficiently. The present study takes advantage of simulated datato evaluate combinatorial methods such as Multiple Sub Sample (MSS) Angles, MSS-distance difference, and M-split and compare them with the SATE method with the aim of choosing the optimal method. Then, unstable points in the real network of Jamishan dam in Kermanshah Province will be discovered using the identified optimal method.
The present study identifies the best method between single and combinatorial methods. The best method can detect most unstable points and has the lowest dependence on geometry, scale and other factors influencing the results.According to the results, Multiple Sub Sample with distance difference is selected as the best method.