عنوان مقاله [English]
Today the costs of building and utilizing industrial centers are too high and thus,any disruption in these centers will have a negative effect on other urban functions.Hence, the presence of sensitive and vital land uses,especially heavy industries in the central urban texture of Kermanshah is considered to be one of the most important issues and problems threateningthe city. Unfortunately, despite regulations of Housing and Urban Development organization which bansuch land uses within the city (due to their risks), they still continue their activities. Obviously, identifying the requirements of these land uses adjacency within Kermanshah decreases the vulnerability of the city. Therefore, it seems necessary to solve the problems caused by inconsideration of passive defense with gradual development of Kermanshah and begin the process of downsizing, scattering and decentralizing these industrial centers based on the principles of passive defensein future plans of the city to reduce the vulnerability of strategic and vital areas of city. Moreover, urban planners have always consideredsafety and security to be important issues in planning, constructing and designingurban residences. Policies of urbanplanning such as zoning regulations are important tools of risk management available for local governments. Experts in crisis management try to pay attention to urban land uses, their geographical and political importance, and the economic, military and political value of these places. In this regard, theytake advantage of methods and strategies to reduce vulnerability and damagesof these environmentsintimesofcrisis.Principles of passive civil defense are a set of basic and infrastructural actions implemented with the aim of achieving the goals ofpassivedefense such as reducing damages, limiting the capabilities of target identification systems and targeting capability of the enemy’s offensive facilities and thus increasing the costs of such attacks.
Urban strategies may include strategic decisions playing a vital role in urban passive defense through urban decentralization, managing decisions made by urban managers and revising these decisions through executive strategies and criteria. General acceptance of passive defense and participation of all society members in the development of its fundamental principles and foundations are among the most important strategies that can save the society in possible crises. Previous studies suggest a poor understanding of passive defense even in cities of Iran which proves the necessity of more effort and planning in future. Switzerland, meanwhile, ranks first in passive defense in the world. Strategies and plans intended for the development of safety and security in cities should identify different levels of urban crises and analyze, evaluate, and manage potential crisis-causing factors. Identifying these factors will lead to planning, designing, and effectively managing crisis and increase security in cities. This can result in preventing crisis, or minimize the effects of possible crisis. Therefore, careful planning and designing, identifying vulnerable areas, zoning high-risk areas, and supporting organizations involved in crisis management and security can play a vital role in the sustainability of cities in times of crisis. The present study seeks toevaluatespatial importance of vital land uses.
This descriptive- analytical research take advantage of 10 information layers to analyze research data in GISusing fuzzy overlay functions and Gama Operator.
Results & Discussion
Results indicate that the 4th, 5th and 7th zones which are considered amongperiphery regions of Kermanshah city have a modern urban texture as compared to other 5 regions of the city. Also, these regions are in a better situation and condition in terms of passive defense as compared to other regions of the city because of easy access to open spaces, enough distance between neighboring land uses and etc. But, the 1st and 6thzonesare not in a suitable conditionas compared to the other six regions due to being located in thecrowded and dense regions of downtown.
Results indicate that five regions (out of 8) of the city have undesirable and unfavorable conditions in terms ofurban passive defense. This shows that Kermanshah is in a critical and inappropriate condition considering urban texture and structure in terms of passive defense, whichrequires the attention of urban planners.