هشتاد درصد از شهرهای جهان در مناطقی قرار دارند که حداقل سالی یکبار براثر مخاطرات طبیعی آسیبدیده اند. هنگامی که یک مخاطره طبیعی رخ میدهد کسانی که خانههای خود را در اثر این مخاطره از دست می دهند، در حالی که خانههایشان بازسازی میشود، به جایی برای زندگی و نیاز به یافتن مکانهای جایگزین دارند. هدف این تحقیق مکانیابی بهینه ی اسکان موقت در شهر کرمانشاه، با روش توصیفی و متکی بر پیمایش های میدانی با استفاده از مدل جمع وزنی weighted sum و نرم افزار تحلیلی_ترسیمی ArcGIS بهصورت ترکیبی بوده است. در این راستا، در مرحله جمع آوری اطلاعات و داده های اولیه، از مطالعات کتابخانه ای و توزیع پرسشنامه بین خبرگان مرتبط با موضوع مورد مطالعه استفاده شد. با توجه به 9 معیار مهم و مؤثر شیب، دسترسی به راه، فاصله از مراکز نظامی و انتظامی، دسترسی به مراکز آتشنشانی، دسترسی به منابع آب و برق، فاصله از مناطق سیل خیز، تراکم جمعیتی و فاصله از تأسیسات خطرزا است که مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. نتایج حاصل از معیارهای پژوهش گویای این امر بود که از ترکیب شاخصهای 9 گانه در شهر کرمانشاه 1 درصد از محدوده شهر در پهنه مطلوبیت خیلی کم، 11 درصد در پهنه مطلوبیت کم، 37 درصد در پهنه مطلوبیت متوسط، 38 درصد در پهنه مطلوبیت زیاد و 13 درصد در پهنه مطلوبیت خیلی زیاد واقعشده است.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Analysis and identification of effective criteria on the optimal location of temporary settlement after the earthquake -Case study of Kermanshah city
A crisis is a crisis that threatens our country due to special geographical conditions. According to official statistics in the last 29 years, 1% of the country's human casualties were caused by earthquakes, and on average every year an earthquake with a magnitude of 7 on the Richter scale occurs in the country for 11 years (Attar), 2012: 8).
From the point of view of geology, Iran has a zone of lithological structure such as Central Iran, Zagros, Northeastern Iran, Northwestern Iran and Azerbaijan zone, which the thrust and elevated structure of Zagros is considered as one of the most active of these zones. It includes faults such as Sahne, Durood, Qala Hatem. The seismic characteristics of Zagros show that compared to other structural zones, the frequency of earthquakes is high. The central Iranian and Arabian plates are constantly pressing on the Zagros region, and this is the reason why more earthquakes occur in Zagros than in other regions. The studied area of Kermanshah region is an earthquake zone in terms of seismicity. This province, which is located in the Zagros region, has high seismic activity. These earthquakes usually occur around known seismic faults in the province, including the High Zagros Fault (High Zagros Fault, 2014: 114). Despite numerous researches in the field of locating temporary accommodation on the subject of seismic vulnerability, its suitable and usable place after the earthquake with the approach of crisis management in urban areas has received less attention. The city of Kermanshah is a prone region in terms of earthquakes, and due to its location in a geographical area with a high risk of earthquakes, knowing the vulnerable and resistant areas and planning for the correct and appropriate location of temporary accommodation in time The occurrence of an earthquake is necessary to prevent or reduce the possible danger in this city. This research is complementary to the previous research and with more effective criteria and indicators by providing a practical, efficient, simple and logical method for locating temporary accommodation in order to prepare the city with their specific complexity in responding to crises caused by earthquakes. Is. As an example, the Ezgele earthquake in Kermanshah in 2016 with a magnitude of 3.7 on the Richter scale occurred 11 km from Ezgele section and 32 km from Sarpol-Zahab city, which killed and injured more than 12 thousand people. And since then, due to the lack of single policies in the field of emergency, temporary and permanent housing, problems have been created for housing people. Therefore, the existence of a suitable place to live in Sharat after natural hazards, especially earthquakes, is essential for the city of Kermanshah. The present study, taking into account the stages of crisis management of an earthquake-prone city, tries to address the problem of locating suitable spaces for the construction of temporary accommodation camps.
This research is of an applied type and according to the investigated components, the approach that governs it is the descriptive-analytical method. The aim of the present research is to analyze the important and influential criteria for the correct location of temporary accommodation in Kermanshah city. In order to achieve this goal, in accordance with the objectives of the research, the required information has been collected using library research, documents and interviews with experts, and then the criteria used for positioning have been selected based on the positioning criteria. The current approach to spatial analysis has been carried out by using the weighted sum model and the ranking method and ArcGIS software.
-Road situation: The analysis of the results of the Kermanshah city situation based on the road access index using GIS analysis software shows that 75% of the city is in the very low vulnerability zone, 7% is in the low vulnerability zone, and 5% is in the vulnerability zone. On average, 3% is in the high vulnerability zone and 10% is in the very high vulnerability zone.
-Population density: Examining the results of the state of Kermanshah city based on the population density index using GIS analysis-mapping software, shows that 27% of the city is in the very low vulnerability zone, 27% in the low vulnerability zone, 26% in the medium vulnerability zone. 11% is in the high vulnerability zone and 10% is in the very high vulnerability zone.
-Location to administrative, law enforcement and military centers: Examining the results of Kermanshah city status based on the index of access to administrative, law enforcement and military centers using GIS software, shows that 7% of the city area is in the very low vulnerability zone, 12% in the vulnerability zone low, 13% in the medium vulnerability zone, 12% in the high vulnerability zone and 57% in the very high vulnerability zone.
-The location of fire stations: the analysis of the results of Kermanshah city based on the index of access to fire stations using GIS analysis software shows that 2 percent of the city is in the very low vulnerability zone, 5 percent in the low vulnerability zone, 8 percent in In the medium vulnerability zone, 32% is in the high vulnerability zone and 53% is in the very high vulnerability zone.
-Land slope: This criterion is measured by the slope index. Examining the results of Kermanshah city status based on the land slope index using GIS analytical-mapping software, shows that 46% of the city area is in the very low vulnerability zone, 33% in the low vulnerability zone, 11% in the medium vulnerability zone, 6% in the vulnerability zone. high and 4% is in the zone of very high vulnerability.
-Distance from flood-prone areas: The evaluation of the results of Kermanshah city status based on the index of distance from flood-prone areas using GIS analysis-mapping software shows that 16% of the city area is in the very low vulnerability zone, 11% in the low vulnerability zone, 19% in the low vulnerability zone. In the zone of moderate vulnerability, 25% is in the zone of high vulnerability and 29% is in the zone of very high vulnerability.
-Distance from hazardous facilities: To measure this criterion, the indicators of electrical facilities, gasoline pumps, gas pumps and gas pressure reduction stations have been used in terms of their functional nature and hazard. Analyzing the results of the state of Kermanshah city based on the index of distance from dangerous facilities using GIS analytical-mapping software, it shows that 13% of the city area is in the very low vulnerability zone, 12% in the low vulnerability zone, 25% in the medium vulnerability zone. 34% is in the zone of high vulnerability and 16% is in the zone of very high vulnerability.
-Status of water sources: The results of Kermanshah city situation based on the index of access to water resources using GIS analysis-mapping software show that 9% of the city is in the very low vulnerability zone, 17% in the low vulnerability zone, and 15% in the vulnerability zone. On average, 32% is in the high vulnerability zone and 27% is in the very high vulnerability zone.
-Location to power sources Construction of camps and temporary accommodation sites in the power transmission routes due to the provision of lighting and the use of heating devices. The evaluation of the results of the status of Kermanshah city based on the index of access to electricity resources using GIS analytical-mapping software shows that 9% of the city area is in the very low vulnerability zone, 8% in the low vulnerability zone, 8% in the medium vulnerability zone, 26% in The zone of high vulnerability and 49% is placed in the zone of very high vulnerability.
-The final map of the optimal location of temporary accommodation bases after defining the important criteria and analyzing the indicators in the studied area is as follows: The results of the combination of 9 indicators in the city of Kermanshah indicate that 1% of the city area In the area of very low desirability, 11% is in the area of low desirability, 37% is in the area of medium desirability, 38% is in the area of high desirability, and 13% is in the area of very high desirability.
In this research, according to the nature of the research and examination of the environmental conditions of Kermanshah city and the important indicators that are selected and evaluated according to the topic. After examining the determining and influencing factors on the temporary accommodation system and identifying the factors, the results were 9 indicators, which should be applied in the present study with general and specific evaluations (relative to the conditions of the study area). It became a scientific source of consolidation. Investigating and identifying the most accurate features in choosing the location of safe shelters: (slope, access to roads, distance from centers and management, access to firefighting centers, access to water and electricity sources, distance from flood-prone areas, and distance of dangerous risks) is considered And the results of the research showed that the important criteria and options in choosing the right place for temporary accommodation are centers that are identified as the best places that are far from the river and sensitive and dangerous uses such as gas stations and pressure lines. It should be maintained strong and close to essential service centers such as medical centers and fire stations, provided with water and electricity sources, accessible by communication lines, and the probability of damage and blocking of roads should be low. Examining the points selected in the final map shows that in the city of Kermanshah, these points are suitable for use according to important criteria such as: accessibility, distance from sensitive uses, proximity to service areas and distance from flood prone areas. It is in critical condition. The results of the current research show the capability of multi-criteria decision-making methods and geographic information system in identifying areas prone to temporary settlement. Therefore, according to the findings and results of this research, it is suggested that relevant organs, departments and organizations such as the municipality, the governorate, the crisis management center of the Kermanshah Fire Organization, etc., by creating comprehensive and updated databases of all details and elements A city based on the geographic information system should always be prepared for the temporary settlement of the population in the wake of the earthquake crisis. -Preparation of basic and suitable infrastructures for selected sites such as sanitary facilities, water sources, lighting system, etc., so that in case of an earthquake, it has the necessary conditions to accommodate the population, and the need to spend time for not provide these services. Accommodation centers should be located near roads that provide access to different parts on the one hand, and on the other hand, the probability of damage and blockage of these roads is low so that the risk of cutting off access, accommodation, relief and rescue operations does not stop. Zagros seismic zone has its own seismic mechanism. The fault systems and the earthquakes that occurred there follow the special pattern of the Zagros earthquake province, so planning and management should be done by evaluating the existing conditions and taking into account all the conditions of the region and the needs of the people. be carefully examined.