امروزه گردشگری یکی از منابع اصلی درآمد ملی کشورهای توسعهیافته و برخی کشورهای درحالتوسعه را تشکیل میدهد. ایران نیز به لحاظ شرایط و ویژگیهای اکولوژیکی متنوع توان بسیار بالایی در جذب توریست دارد. بطور خاص شهرک توریستی نمکآبرود به دلیل برخورداری از سه پهنه اکولوژیکی مهم (کوهپایه، جلگه و ساحل) در سالهای اخیر به عنوان یک مقصد گردشگری جذاب پیشرفت زیادی داشته است. در این مطالعه توان اکولوژیکی شهرک نمکآبرود با روش تحلیل سلسلهمراتبی (AHP) و سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی (GIS) در هشت لایه شامل شیب، جهت شیب، ارتفاع از سطح دریا، میزان بارش های سالیانه، فاصله از شبکه راهها، میزان دمای سالانه، کاربری اراضی و حوضههای آبریز مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. یافتههای این پژوهش نشان داد چهار لایه شیب اراضی، جهت شیب، ارتفاع از سطح دریا و میزان بارش سالانه در انتخاب و یافتن مکانهای اکوتوریستی شهرک نمکآبرود دارای اهمیت بیشتری هستند. برهمین اساس، چهار ناحیه دارای اهمیت اکوتوریستی در شهرک با استفاده از روش مذکور شناسایی شد که در دو ناحیه شمال شرق و جنوب شرق به واسطه استفاده نادرست همچون اجرای طرحهای گردشگری، تفریحی، مسکونی ناسازگار با حفاظت از مناطق اکوتوریستی، توان این مکانهای پراهمیت به خطر افتاده است. در مقابل دو ناحیه شمال شرق و شمال غرب منطبق بر جنگل های ساحلی که هنوز مورد بهره برداری قرار نگرفته اند، دارای توان بالقوه مهمی در بخش اکوتوریستم خواهند بود. به همین ترتیب، بهره برداری از مناطق اکولوژیکی شایسته، نیازمند برنامه ریزی درست و تأکید بر رویکرد توسعه متعادل و متوازن است. .
عنوان مقاله [English]
Investigating the natural potential of Namak Abroud tourist town for ecotourism development using AHP model and GIS
Today, tourism is one of the main sources of income for developed countries and some developing countries and the countries of the world, especially the developing ones, are seeking to advance and develop their tourism industry with well-codified plans. One of the types of tourism that has received more attention in recent decades is ecotourism or nature tourism. Iran has a very high potential in attracting tourists in terms of various ecological conditions and characteristics. The northern regions leading to the Caspian Sea are among the regions of Iran that at the same time, it has three important ecological zones (foothills, plains and coasts). Namka Abroud tourist town is one of the areas that has improved in recent years in attracting tourists and ecotourism. Studies on ecotourism and its development have been conducted. These studies can be divided into three main categories. Studies have identified ecological factors that determine ecotourism areas, most of which have focused on factors such as land slope, slope direction, altitude, water resources, access to roads, rainfall, and annual temperature. Other studies emphasize the methodological identification of ecotourism areas. The main methods emphasized are hierarchical analysis methods and geographical systems. The third group of studies focused on how regions were developed. Among the points emphasized by these studies measured to attract ecotourism to preserve its resources and its sustainability, and finally to develop the economic situation of the region.
Materials and Methods
Data and research method: The study data were collected from the Meteorological Organization of Iran, the National Mapping Organization and the Road Engineering Company. Point temperature and precipitation data were obtained using the Kriging spatial interpolation method for the town surface. In this study, the ecological capabilities of Namak Abroud tourist town have been tried by AHP hierarchical analysis method and GIS geographical analysis system of eight layers of ecological slope and slope direction, altitude, annual rainfall, distance from road network, annual temperature, Land use and catchments should be investigated. The hierarchical analysis process is a flexible, simple, and robust method used to make decisions in situations where conflicting decision criteria make it difficult to select options. This method was developed in 1980 by El Thomas Saati. It has been proposed and has had several applications in various sciences. A basic method for testing the AHP method is the pairwise comparison method. This method significantly reduces the conceptual complexity of decision making. Because only two components are examined at a time.
Results and discussion
he results showed that the importance of land slope compared to the slope direction layer is quadruple, furthermore the importance of land slope compared to altitude is sextuple, the average annual rainfall triple, the distance from the road network five times, Moderate annual temperature Eight times, land use is sextuple, and the catchments of the region are double. In other words, the slope is the most influential factor in choosing the Eco-tourism locations of Namkabroud town. After that, three-factor of slope direction, altitude, and annual rainfall is influential in selecting and finding Ecotourism places in Namkabroud town, respectively. Then, using overlapping layers, the important Eco-tourism places of the town were identified, in which four places of Ecotourism importance could be trusted and studied. Two of these four places are parts of the coastal forests of violet and boxwood. Areas that remain almost intact. Therefore, codified management plans can be designed and implemented based on the preservation of Ecotourism attractions on them. But the important point is in a part of the important southern place of Banafsheh Park. Contradictory constructions have been carried out in this area while preserving Ecotourism areas. Most of these constructions are places of entertainment and tourism, including a flight site, restaurant, coffee shop, karting, and shooting club, each of which can cause damage to its Ecotourism features. Government places such as the municipality and the fire brigade are also located in this area, which has no justification for maintaining strategic Ecotourism sites. Important Ecotourism sites located in the east and southeast of the town have become inefficient with unprofessional and irresponsible constructions and have been turned into residential neighborhoods. The last important Ecotourism place in the town is Madoban base mountain, which is known as the cable car area. This place, which is located in the 5th residential neighborhood of town, has created several tourist entertainments sites, such as lines one and two, cable cars, sleds, a cinema, and a smashing machine. In addition, the construction of commercial and residential sites has caused irreparable damage to its Ecotourism importance.
The following results were obtained in the study of important places in Namakabroud town. Only the places located in the two coastal forests of Banafsheh and Shamshad are almost safe from the bite of unprofessional constructions, while other places have either been inhabited or government and recreational places have been created in them. It is not in line with the goals of preserving sustainable Ecotourism places. Therefore, the proper management of ecotourism areas was evaluated. To be able to properly manage the preservation and sustainability of Namak Abroud Ecotourism vulnerable places are to be proposed. The results of the studies in this section showed that the coastal and foothill areas of the town have the potential for extensive recreation and other important places can develop central recreation, which planners and investors in the tourism sector should implement and Consider constructing tourist sites.