وجود انواع تفرق های قانونی، نهادی، وظیفه ای، ساختاری همچنین انواع بازیگران با قدرت های متفاوت و در برخی اوقات نابرابر سبب شده که تحقق یکپارچگی به یک مسئله اساسی در گردشگری ورزشی تبدیل شود. این پژوهش در راستای طراحی الگوی مدیریت یکپارچه در گردشگری ورزشی ایران صورت گرفت. پژوهش حاضر با رویکرد آمیخته(کیفی-کمّی) و با استراتژی اکتشافی(توسعه ابزار) انجام شد. دربخش کیفی؛ شاخص های مدیریت یکپارچه صنعت گردشگری ورزشی ایران از طریق مصاحبه عمیق و نیمه ساختار یافته با متخصصان و کلیه صاحبنظران درگردشگری، گردشگری ورزشی و مدیریت ورزشی شناسایی و با بهره گیری از نظریه داده بنیاد(رویکرد گلیزر) با سه مرحله کدگذاری تجزیه و تحلیل شد. به این ترتیب پرسشنامه ای براساس هشت معیار: همچنین 29 زیرمعیار، در مقیاس پنج ارزشی لیکرت با 119سؤال تدوین شد. روایی و پایایی پرسشنامه با تحلیل عاملی تأییدی اکتشافی و آلفای کرونباخ(96%) بررسی شد. جامعه آماری بخش کمّی شامل 600 نفر از کارشناسان و مدیران وزارت های میراث فرهنگی، ورزش وجوانان همچنین سازمان حفاظت محیط زیست، سازمان هواپیمایی کشوری، کمیته ملی المپیک و پارالمپیک، دفاتر خدمات مسافرتی و فعالان بخش خصوصی همچنین دانشجویان و اساتید دکتری مدیریت ورزشی بود. به منظور تجزیه و تحلیل اطلاعات در بخش توصیفی از روش های فراوانی، میانگین و انحراف استاندارد استفاده شد. نرمال بودن داده ها با آزمون کلومووگروف-اسپیروف(0.05<) بررسی شد. در بخش آمار استنباطی از آزمون مدل یابی معادلات ساختاری، آزمون فریدمن(0.001=P) و ضریب همبستگی پیرسون باکمک نرم افزار های AMOS و SPSS استفاده شد. برمبنای یافته ها هشت شاخص سیاستی - برنامه ای، وظیفه ای، مدیریتی، قانونی، نهادی، ساختاری، ذینفعان، ابزار و منابع به عنوان عوامل مؤثر مدیریت یکپارچه گردشگری ورزشی ایران شناسایی شدند. در این بین؛ شاخص قانونی با آماره(13.077= t) و زیرمعیار بودجه" با مقدار آماره(27.606= t) بیشترین تأثیر را دارند. همچنین بین معیارهای اصلی پژوهش ارتباط معنی داری در سطح99% وجود دارد. به این ترتیب پیشنهاد می شود، مسئولین و سیاستگذاران در این حوزه با بهره گیری از نتایج پژوهش، در راستای کاربست مدیریت یکپارچه در تمامی ابعاد، زمینه را برای قرار گرفتن گردشگری ورزشی ایران در مدار توسعه همه جانبه، فراهم کنند.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Designing an integrated management model of the sports tourism industry in Iran
The tourism industry is the world's largest industry in terms of income and cultural exchanges. Progress in the field of sports is one of the strategic priorities of planners in countries. Sports tourism is one of the most important developed sectors of the tourism industry. In this regard, the Ministry of Sports and Youth, the National Olympic and Paralympic Committee, the National Olympic and Paralympic Academy, sports federations, physical education, the Ministry of Science, Research and Technology Sports and Education Federation, Ministry of Education and Culture, Sports and Youth Fraction of the Islamic Council, Provincial Sports and Youth Departments, Sports Associations, each of which is a decision-making body in the field are sports The existence of multiple, as well as the simultaneous existence of policy-making and implementation in the Ministry of Sports and Youth, have created inadequacies in these sectors, which, of course, have denied the possibility of competition from the private sector. It seems that the general spirit governing the constitution of the Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Tourism, like the provisions related to tourism in the country's five-year development laws, is a reductionist attitude towards the tourism industry. Due to the uncertainty of the coordination authority in the field of sports tourism decision-making and policy-making, the lack of legal commitment and the need for coordination between sports executive bodies, the multiplicity and diversity of sports tourism tasks. Institutions in charge, the emphasis and clarity of Article 100 of the Law of the Sixth Five-Year Development Plan, based on integrated management, the lack of attention of upstream laws and documents to the priority of sports tourism, the lack of cooperation and the establishment of coherent relations between the government, government and private institutions in the sports tourism industry, preparation An integrated model is important in the sports tourism industry in the country. Considering the number of related organizations in sports tourism and the lack of clarity about the interaction of these organizations with each other, the present research aims to investigate the integrated management of related institutions in the sports tourism industry. This research can play an important role in optimizing management planning in the tourism industry by identifying the effective factors of integrated management of Iran's sports tourism industry. Therefore, the current research aims to provide an integrated management model in Iran's sports tourism industry and seeks to answer this question: What are the effective factors of integrated management in Iran's sports tourism industry?
Research methodology and Fndings
The current research has a mixed (qualitative-quantitative) approach based on data search. In the qualitative part, the foundational data approach (Glaser method) has been used to present and develop the theory in the study area of the research. The statistical (qualitative) community includes all the experts in the field of tourism, sports management as well as sports tourism. In this research, the purposeful sampling method was used. Sampling continued until reaching a point where adding a new sample no longer has an effect on the development of research theory, theoretical saturation was achieved after the 20th interview. The main method of data collection was semi-structured in-depth interviews. In the process of qualitative data analysis and performing three stages of coding (open, central and selective), a number of 1167 open codes were obtained, which were reduced to 377 unique open codes after merging and removing commonalities, then the open codes were categorized into 29 central codes and finally In selective coding, they were divided into 8 groups: program policy, task, management, legal, institutional, structural, beneficiaries, tools and resources. In this way, a questionnaire based on the main factors and sub-criteria was compiled on a five-point Likert scale with 119 questions. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire was checked with exploratory confirmatory factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha (96%). The statistical population of the quantitative part included 600 experts and managers of the ministries of cultural heritage, sports and youth, as well as the Environmental Protection Organization, the Civil Aviation Organization, the National Olympic and Paralympic Committee. , travel service offices and private sector activists as well as sports management doctoral students and professors. Frequency, mean and standard deviation methods were used to analyze the information in the descriptive part. The normality of the data was checked with the Kolomogorov-Spirov test (<0.05). In the inferential statistics section of the structural equation modeling test, Friedman's test (P=0.001) and Pearson's correlation coefficient, which showed a significant correlation at the 99% level between the main research criteria; It was used with the help of AMOS and SPSS software.
Undoubtedly, the existence of various institutional, legal, structural and managerial differences and the involvement of various organizations and institutions in the tourism cause create complicated problems. The current research by observing the situation of sports tourism in Iran, as a strategy for development; He also carefully specified documents and strategic plans at the macro levels; What is observed in the sports tourism industry is the presence of various actors with unequal powers, which has become a fundamental issue in this field of tourism. Despite the emphasis in the general policies of the sixth development plan and the importance of various aspects of development, the laws of some ministries and organizations related to sports tourism do not have the necessary overlap. In this way, it is necessary for the officials and legislators to act transparently, to remove the dispersal of the same laws and the uniform and unsavory implementation of the laws. It should also be noted that; Among the different components of the sports tourism system, management activities and tasks are distributed disproportionately and have led to functional, institutional and managerial differences. The use of tasteful management instead of scientific management and the incompatibility of the actions taken by the previous managers with the attitude of the new managers are among the many problems in the division of the field of sports tourism. It is included in the development of the country.Therefore, integrated management in this field, taking into account the indicators of the current research, is a balance between barriers and facilitating factors of costs and benefits. Considering the participation of various elements to play a role in sports tourism; This integration leads to the creation of a network of actors with different powers, the imbalance in the power of the beneficiaries in the field of sports tourism will lead to forward movement if there is inter-sectoral coordination and systematic dialogue between the relevant institutions. According to the obtained results, in order to achieve the integrated management of sports tourism in Iran, the following solutions can be presented to lay the groundwork and facilitate the implementation of integrated management.
Revision of the rules and regulations proposed for tourism-sports in terms of having a guarantee of implementation.
Formation of the tourism-sports executive committee with the aim of strengthening the monitoring and control approach.
Creating the capacity to plan and manage sports tourism resources, in order to participate and improve local incomes.
Establishing an efficient and transparent tax system for the benefit of sports tourism.