در چند دهه اخیر شهرها به عنوان مهمترین سکونتگاههای بشر بهواسطه افزایش درجه شهرنشینی و جمعیت شهری که از مهمترین جنبههای تغییر جهانی است، مقدمه رشد و توسعه گستردهی شهری را فراهم آورده اند. عوامل متعددی از قبیل ویژگیهای ژئومورفولوژی، شرایط اقلیمی و خصایص زمینشناختی در مکان گزینی شهرها مؤثرند. در این پژوهش نقش ژئومورفولوژی و عوامل محیطی بهعنوان یکی از عوامل مهم تأثیرگذار در مکانیابی و توسعه فیزیکی شهر ماکو مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. عوامل ژئومورفوئولوژیکی، مهمترین و اثرگذارترین پارامترهای مؤثر در پیدایش، استقرار و توسعه یک شهر هستند. برای دستیابی به هدف مور نظر و ارزیابی آن دادههای موردنیاز از نقشههای توپوگرافی 1500000 و زمینشناسی 1.100000 استخراج شده و سپس با استفاده از نرمافزار Arc GIS نقشههای موردنظر تهیه شده اند. همچنین در این تحقیق از مدل تصمیمگیری الکتره – فازی استفاده شد که بر مبنای آن محورها و جهتهای جغرافیایی محتمل توسعه شهر ماکو و ضریب اهمیت نسبی مؤلفههای ژئومورفولوژیک محاسبه و تعیین شدند. معیارهای دخیل در توسعه شهر ماکو، شیب، جهت شیب، ارتفاع، فاصله از رودخانه، فاصله از گسل، فاصله از جاده، لیتولوژی، خاک و کاربری اراضی نقشههای مربوط به هریک از این مؤلفهها با استفاده از نرمافزار Arc GIS، مورد مقایسه و ارزیابی قرار گرفتند، سپس با روی همگذاری لایهها طبقهبندیشده، نقشه پهنهبندی مناسب توسعه شهر تهیه و در پنج کلاس کاملاً مناسب، نسبتاً مناسب، مناسب، نامناسب و کاملاً نامناسب برای توسعه تقسیمبندی شد. نتایج نشان داد مناسبترین مسیر برای توسعه آتی شهر ماکو، سمت شرقی و غربی تا حدی جنوب شرقی این شهر است.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Evaluation of suitable Areas for physical Development in maku city using the Electra – Fuzzy Method in Arc GIs Environment
In recent decades, cities have provided the prelude to widespread urban growth and development as the most important human settlements, due to the increasing degree of urbanization and the increase in urban population, which is one of the most important aspects of global transformation. In recent decades, following the growing expansion of urbanization and urbanization, as well as the continuous increase in population, many cities in the country have faced significant physical development, which has left planners and city managers with the problem of determining the right axes. And the boundaries of future physical growth of cities have faced. Maku is one of the cities that experienced an annual growth of 3.7 percent between 1996 and 2016, with a population of 46,581. Given the forecast of the increase in the population of the city in the coming years, the identification of suitable land for its physical development is an inevitable necessity. Several factors, including geomorphological features, climatic conditions, geological features, are effective in choosing the location of cities. The study evaluated the role of geomorphology as one of the factors influencing the location and physical development of the city of Maku.
Materials and Methods
The research method is of a descriptive-analytical type with a functional purpose. In this study, raw data was collected through documented and field studies. This study examines the geomorphological factors influencing the physical-physical development of the city of Maku. To evaluate the optimal development of urban land, the components of lithology, soil, slope, distance from the river, direction of slope, height, land use, distance from fault and Road in the area of the surrounding city of Maku were used. To analyze data and select the optimal location, a combination of two phase - electro and Shannon entropy models has been used. To prepare the ground fit layer, the layers in question are standardized and phased in the ArcGis environment using the Phase model and by the calculator instrument and in the form of a raster in the form of a value of zero to one. Finally, the coating of layers using phase logic (gamma) to optimize the development of the city of Maku was determined, and then the development path of the city of Maku was classified into five groups: completely appropriate, relatively appropriate, appropriate, inappropriate and very inappropriate.
After determining the effective criteria in locating and detecting the weight of the criteria, the information layers should be combined with the appropriate method. The composition of the map is obtained by overlapping weighted maps. Merging and combining different spatial layers from different sources together is the main goal of GIS projects and its unique feature, so that the interactions are described and analyzed with the help of predictive models to support decision-makers. The final map of the development potential of the city of Maku was prepared by combining different layers of information and classified according to the Likert scale. In this classification, land was considered suitable for urban development in 5 groups of lands with very low, low, medium, high and very high development potential. According to the above map, most of the city's immediate land is located in the eastern and western parts of the city for Urban Development. The southern and northern lands of the kalbdi District of Maku are also small or very small for the future development of the city. The proximity to the epicenter of earthquakes, the short distance from the river and the location of the flood path are the main reasons for the inadequacy of the above land for the physical development of the city of Maku. The lands located east and West at the entrance of the city from the shout and merchant side are the only immediate areas of the city that are very suitable for the future development of the city.
Among the seven geomorphological factors studied, the two factors "altitude" and "lithology" are the highest coefficients of importance, and the factors "slope direction" and "distance from the river" are also the least important. The results of comparative analysis of the eight geographical directions in terms of geomorphological factors also show that in terms of the litholysis factor, the east, west and northwest directions are more desirable compared to other options. In terms of the elevation factor, the Northeast and East Directions are more suitable, and in terms of the distance factor, the West and northwest directions are more preferred. Comparing options in terms of soil factor also indicates a greater favorability of the Northeast and northwest directions. Distance from the river was another component that, based on the analyses, the East and Southeast directions, identified more favorable areas for urban development in terms of this component; and finally, in terms of the slope direction criterion, the lands located in the southeast of the City face greater desirability. After determining the coefficient of importance of the criteria and the relative score of the options in terms of each of the factors studied the coefficients of importance of the criteria and the relative weight of the options were calculated within the framework of the method of the process of hierarchical analysis of the integration and score of each of the eight geographical directions as follows the East was calculated with a gradient of 5 West 5 southwest 1 northeast 2 North 0 south 0 Southeast 4 Northwest 0 thus in terms of geomorphological factors the study word in the ین research orientations east west and the southeast is proposed as a priority for the future development of the city of Maku.