بهعنوان یک روند کلی، افزایش تقاضا در استفاده از انرژی در دو بعد کمّی و کیفی همراه با توسعهی اجتماعی و اقتصادی است. بهرهگیری از انرژیهای نو، سالهاست که پایه انجام تحقیقات گسترده و دستیابی به تکنولوژیهای جدید جهانی بوده که باید گفت کشور بزرگ ایران از آن، کم بهره است. انرژی خورشیدی، یکی از مهمترین انواع انرژیهای نو است. هدف از این تحقیق بررسی امکان استفاده از انرژی تابش خورشیدی در روستاهای شهرستان جوین واقع در استان خراسان رضوی میباشد. در این تحقیق با استفاده از روش تحلیل تابش در محیط GIS، نقشه پهنهبندی تابش کل خورشیدی در سطح 113 روستای فعال شهرستان جوین تولید شد. بدین منظور، دو پارامتر کسر پخشیده (K) و تراگسیلایی جوّ با استفاده از مقادیر اندازهگیری شده تابش کل و تابش فراجوّی مربوط به ایستگاههای مورد بررسی برآورد و پس از آن پهنه سالانه تابش دریافتی در سال 2017 به روش تحلیل تابش و با استفاده از مدل رقومی ارتفاعی منطقه با توان تفکیک مکانی 30 متر و برای ایستگاههای تابشسنجی بهصورت نقطهای برآورد شد و نهایتاً براساس نیاز مصرفی روستا و توان تولیدی انرژی خورشیدی در منطقه پتانسیلسنجی صورت گرفت. بنا به نتایج بهدست آمده، مقادیر تابش خورشیدی تقریباً در دامنه 383675- 27605وات بر متر مربع قرار دارد؛ بنابراین پتانسیل لازم را برای اجرای سامانههای فتوولتائیک خورشیدی دارد. با محاسبه و بررسی تابش کلی در سطح منطقه مورد مطالعه، دو روستای حکمآباد و قلعه نو دارای پتانسیل عالی در انرژی تابش خورشیدی شناسایی شدند. مطالعة نقشه پتانسیلسنجی نشان میدهد که، 89.07 درصد از سطح شهرستان دارای پتانسیل عالی، 8.58 درصد دارای پتانسیل خیلی خوب و 2.33 درصد دارای پتانسیل خوب میباشند. همچنین نتایج نشان میدهد که روستاهای کمجمعیت و صعبالعبور پتانسیل بیشتری برای استفاده از انرژی خورشیدی را دارا میباشد.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Assessing the feasibility of using solar energy in arid villages - Case study: villages in Joveyn County
Recent scientific and technological development have provided comfort and well-being for communities while also resulting in new challenges such as environmental pollution. As a source of environmental pollution, fossil fuels emit toxic gases into the air while burning and thus trap heat in atmosphere, increase air temperature and result in wide-ranging climate changes. As the most significant source of energy, the sun can provide us with a proper alternative to fossil fuels. Related information can be collected through direct measurement of solar energy using devices such as a pyrometer. So far, various approaches such as remote sensing have been adopted to universalize solar irradiance maps. Due to their high accuracy and speed in estimating net radiation, remote sensing techniques can be an appropriate alternative to old experimental methods. Having access to precise information on the amount and intensity of solar radiation at low latitudes, including Iran is essential for the development of solar sites. The present study assesses solar energy and the feasibility of generating solar power or a photovoltaic (PV) system in rural areas of Joveyn County.
Materials and method
Elevation and related maps, sunshine hours, direct and indirect radiation, and total radiation were first collected and calculated. GIS-based solar radiation analysis was conducted in the present study and a zoning map was generated showing total solar radiation in 113 villages of Joveyn County. Atmospheric transmittance and diffuse radiation were extracted from the total radiation and extraterrestrial radiation of the studied stations. Then the annual radiation received in 2017 was estimated using the radiation analysis method and 30-meter resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the study area. Finally, the feasibility was assessed based on the consumption requirements of the villages and solar energy production capacity in the study area.
Discussion and results
GIS radiation analysis sub-program was used to zone the total solar radiation in Joveyn County. Atmospheric transmittance and diffuse radiation were then estimated separately using the radiation recorded in each station and entered the model to determine the radiation. Elevation and related maps, sunshine hours, direct and indirect radiation, and total radiation were first collected and calculated in the present study. The highest altitude was recorded in the southern parts of the study area including Jalambadan, Ramshin, and Bid rural areas.
Sunshine duration was the most important climatic parameter in the present study. Except for the southern elevations, the study area generally experienced long sunshine hours. The longest sunshine duration was observed in spring with an average of 1177.81 W/m², while the shortest was in winter with an average of 904.269 W/m². Tarsak village and Ghaem town have experienced the longest sunshine hours. The highest direct solar radiation was observed in the southern elevations of Joveyn County. Results indicate that the highest amount of direct solar radiation is observed in spring in rural areas of Karimabad, Rahmatabad, and Beyhagh, while the lowest is received in autumn.
The highest amount of total radiation was observed in Jalambadan and Rahravi Bidkhor villages in spring, while the lowest was observed in autumn. Observed differences in radiation and altitude show that both parameters were affected by topographic conditions such as degree and aspect of slope and obstacles blocking direct radiation. Results indicated that Rahravi Bidkhor, Kalateh Fazel, and Bidkhor have received the highest total radiation throughout the study area.
Finally, the total radiation potential was calculated. Accordingly, the highest solar radiation energy potential was recorded in Helamabad and Qale-e-Now villages. Results indicated that solar energy can be utilized in scattered and sparsely populated rural areas. Potential measurement map showed that 89.07% of the study area had an excellent potential, 8.58% had very good potential, and 2.33% had good potential. Finally, wind speed and direction were also evaluated. The highest wind speed was observed in the western and northwestern regions of the study area which results in a high potential for wind energy harvesting. Moving from east toward the study area, the potential decreases.
The present study has measured solar radiation reaching the Earth’s surface using the solar energy analyzer function of remote sensing and GIS with the aim of assessing the feasibility of using photovoltaic systems in the study area. Results indicated that solar radiation of the study area is between 27605 and 383675. Since a 1000 watts per square solar radiation is needed for photovoltaic cells, solar radiation in the study area has the necessary potential for solar photovoltaic systems. The wind speed potential in the study area decreases from west to east. Therefore, construction of wind power plants in the western parts of the study area is possible and economical. Moreover, environmental conditions show that solar panels can be installed and solar energy can be utilized in the mentioned region.
Consistent with the present study, Sherbafian (2008) has assessed the feasibility of using solar energy in four provinces of Khorasan, Gilan, Qazvin, and East Azerbaijan, and concluded that Iran enjoys a high potential for solar energy generation. Findings are also consistent with Safaei et al. (2015) who have studied the potential of clean energy production in Esfarayen city.